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Gene Review

GORK  -  potassium channel GORK

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: MPA22.4, MPA22_4, gated outwardly-rectifying K+ channel
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Disease relevance of GORK


High impact information on GORK

  • Expression of GORK dominant negative mutant polypeptides in transgenic Arabidopsis was found to strongly reduce outwardly rectifying K(+) channel activity in the guard cell membrane, and disruption of the GORK gene (T-DNA insertion knockout mutant) fully suppressed this activity [1].
  • The Arabidopsis outward K+ channel GORK is involved in regulation of stomatal movements and plant transpiration [1].
  • Bioassays on epidermal peels revealed that disruption of GORK activity resulted in impaired stomatal closure in response to darkness or the stress hormone abscisic acid [corrected] [1].
  • Studying all shaker-like ion channel alpha-subunits, we only found the K(+) inward rectifier AtKC1 and AKT1 and the K(+) outward rectifier GORK to be expressed in this cell type [2].
  • SKOR and GORK are outward-rectifying plant potassium channels from Arabidopsis thaliana [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of GORK


Biological context of GORK


Anatomical context of GORK

  • In agreement with the delayed outward rectifier in intact guard cells and protoplasts thereof, GORK is activated in a voltage- and potassium-dependent manner [7].
  • When heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes the gene product of GORK mediated depolarization-activated K(+) currents [7].

Associations of GORK with chemical compounds

  • The wilting hormone ABA that integrates responses to these stimuli induced GORK expression in seedlings in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and this induction was dependent on extracellular Ca2+ [4].

Other interactions of GORK

  • We demonstrate that SKOR and GORK physically interact and assemble into heteromeric K(out) channels [3].
  • The two inward rectifiers AKT1 and ATKC1 as well as the outward rectifier GORK dominated the root hair K(+) channel pool [5].
  • In contrast to other tissues, GORK expression as well as K+(out) channel activity in guard cells is ABA insensitive, allowing the plant to adjust stomatal movement and water status control separately [4].


  1. The Arabidopsis outward K+ channel GORK is involved in regulation of stomatal movements and plant transpiration. Hosy, E., Vavasseur, A., Mouline, K., Dreyer, I., Gaymard, F., Porée, F., Boucherez, J., Lebaudy, A., Bouchez, D., Very, A.A., Simonneau, T., Thibaud, J.B., Sentenac, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. AtKC1, a silent Arabidopsis potassium channel alpha -subunit modulates root hair K+ influx. Reintanz, B., Szyroki, A., Ivashikina, N., Ache, P., Godde, M., Becker, D., Palme, K., Hedrich, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Assembly of plant Shaker-like K(out) channels requires two distinct sites of the channel alpha-subunit. Dreyer, I., Porée, F., Schneider, A., Mittelstädt, J., Bertl, A., Sentenac, H., Thibaud, J.B., Mueller-Roeber, B. Biophys. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of the ABA-sensitive Arabidopsis potassium channel gene GORK in response to water stress. Becker, D., Hoth, S., Ache, P., Wenkel, S., Roelfsema, M.R., Meyerhoff, O., Hartung, W., Hedrich, R. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. K(+) channel profile and electrical properties of Arabidopsis root hairs. Ivashikina, N., Becker, D., Ache, P., Meyerhoff, O., Felle, H.H., Hedrich, R. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Genes for calcium-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of plant root cells. White, P.J., Bowen, H.C., Demidchik, V., Nichols, C., Davies, J.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. GORK, a delayed outward rectifier expressed in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, is a K(+)-selective, K(+)-sensing ion channel. Ache, P., Becker, D., Ivashikina, N., Dietrich, P., Roelfsema, M.R., Hedrich, R. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
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