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Gene Review

ABI1  -  protein phosphatase 2C 56

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ABI1

  • This implicates ABI1 in wound-signalling and suggests that a common early ABA signalling pathway may function in the responses to wounding and water stress [1].
  • Double mutant analysis of hos5-1 and the ABA-deficient aba1-1 as well as the ABA-insensitive abi1-1 mutant indicated that the osmotic stress hypersensitivity of hos5-1 is not affected by ABA deficiency or insensitivity [2].

High impact information on ABI1

  • Moreover, activation of Ca2+ channels by H2O2 and ABA- and H2O2-induced stomatal closing are disrupted in the recessive ABA-insensitive mutant gca2 [3].
  • All three responses are affected in the ABA-insensitive mutant abi1 of Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that an early step in the signaling of ABA is controlled by the ABI1 locus [4].
  • The ABI1 gene encodes a protein with high similarity to protein serine or threonine phosphatases of type 2C with the novel feature of a putative Ca2+ binding site [4].
  • The ABI1 gene was cloned by chromosome walking, and a missense mutation was identified in the structural gene of the abi1 mutant [4].
  • Thus, the control of the phosphorylation state of cell signaling components by the ABI1 product could mediate pleiotropic hormone responses [4].

Biological context of ABI1


Anatomical context of ABI1


Associations of ABI1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ABI1

  • We found that some PKSs interact strongly with ABI2 whereas others interact preferentially with ABI1 [14].

Regulatory relationships of ABI1

  • These results indicate that ATHB-7 is transcriptionally regulated in an ABA-dependent manner and may act in a signal transduction pathway which mediates a drought response and also includes ABI1 [15].
  • Furthermore, ectopic expression of ABI3 also influenced ABI1-dependent responses that occur in wild-type vegetative tissues [16].

Other interactions of ABI1

  • However, leaves of abi2 revealed in comparison to WT and abi1 enhanced fibrillin levels, pointing to a posttranscriptional control mechanism [11].
  • These results suggest that ATHB6 may act downstream to both ABI1 and ABI2 in a signal transduction pathway mediating a drought stress response [17].
  • Our results establish the PPI motif and the protein kinase interaction domain as novel protein interaction domains that mediate the binding between the SOS2 family of protein kinases and the ABI1/2 family of protein phosphatases [14].
  • These results indicate that PA produced by PLD alpha 1 inhibits the function of the negative regulator ABI1, thus promoting ABA signaling [9].
  • Arabidopsis ABA response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ABI1

  • Domain II interacted with the ABI1 protein in a yeast two-hybrid assay [19].
  • We show in two complementary transient ABA-inducible gene expression assays (beta-glucuronidase and luciferase enzymatic activities and quantitative flow cytometry of green fluorescent protein) that trivalent ions specifically interact with an ABI1-dependent ABA-signaling pathway leading to gene expression [20].
  • Here, we show that phospholipase Dalpha1 (PLDalpha1) mediates the ABA effects on stomata through interaction with a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein) in Arabidopsis [21].
  • PKIII was Ca2+-indepdented, inactivated by PP2A or PP2C, had a requirement for a hydrophobic residue in the +4 position of peptide substrates, had a molecular mass by gel filtration of approximately 140 kDa, and an antibody against the rye SNF1-related PK (RKIN1) recognized a 58 kDa subunit in fractions containing PKIII [22].


  1. Expression of the Arabidopsis abi1-1 mutant allele inhibits proteinase inhibitor wound-induction in tomato. Carrera, E., Prat, S. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. HOS5-a negative regulator of osmotic stress-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Xiong, L., Ishitani, M., Lee, H., Zhu, J.K. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Pei, Z.M., Murata, Y., Benning, G., Thomine, S., Klüsener, B., Allen, G.J., Grill, E., Schroeder, J.I. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A protein phosphatase 2C involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Meyer, K., Leube, M.P., Grill, E. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Convergence of the abscisic acid, CO2, and extracellular calcium signal transduction pathways in stomatal guard cells. Webb, A.A., Hetherington, A.M. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning in Arabidopsis thaliana of a new protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) with homology to ABI1 and ABI2. Rodriguez, P.L., Leube, M.P., Grill, E. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. A hypermorphic mutation in the protein phosphatase 2C HAB1 strongly affects ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. Robert, N., Merlot, S., N'guyen, V., Boisson-Dernier, A., Schroeder, J.I. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutational analysis of protein phosphatase 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction in higher plants. Sheen, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Phospholipase D alpha 1-derived phosphatidic acid interacts with ABI1 phosphatase 2C and regulates abscisic acid signaling. Zhang, W., Qin, C., Zhao, J., Wang, X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Inactivation of AtRac1 by abscisic acid is essential for stomatal closure. Lemichez, E., Wu, Y., Sanchez, J.P., Mettouchi, A., Mathur, J., Chua, N.H. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Fibrillin expression is regulated by abscisic acid response regulators and is involved in abscisic acid-mediated photoprotection. Yang, Y., Sulpice, R., Himmelbach, A., Meinhard, M., Christmann, A., Grill, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. The ABI1 and ABI2 protein phosphatases 2C act in a negative feedback regulatory loop of the abscisic acid signalling pathway. Merlot, S., Gosti, F., Guerrier, D., Vavasseur, A., Giraudat, J. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C from Arabidopsis. Meinhard, M., Grill, E. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel domain in the protein kinase SOS2 mediates interaction with the protein phosphatase 2C ABI2. Ohta, M., Guo, Y., Halfter, U., Zhu, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The Arabidopsis homeobox gene ATHB-7 is induced by water deficit and by abscisic acid. Söderman, E., Mattsson, J., Engström, P. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Interactions between the ABI1 and the ectopically expressed ABI3 genes in controlling abscisic acid responses in Arabidopsis vegetative tissues. Parcy, F., Giraudat, J. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. The HD-Zip gene ATHB6 in Arabidopsis is expressed in developing leaves, roots and carpels and up-regulated by water deficit conditions. Söderman, E., Hjellström, M., Fahleson, J., Engström, P. Plant Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Arabidopsis ABA response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Leung, J., Bouvier-Durand, M., Morris, P.C., Guerrier, D., Chefdor, F., Giraudat, J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. The regulatory domain of SRK2E/OST1/SnRK2.6 interacts with ABI1 and integrates abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress signals controlling stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. Yoshida, R., Umezawa, T., Mizoguchi, T., Takahashi, S., Takahashi, F., Shinozaki, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Trivalent ions activate abscisic acid-inducible promoters through an ABI1-dependent pathway in rice protoplasts. Hagenbeek, D., Quatrano, R.S., Rock, C.D. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. A bifurcating pathway directs abscisic acid effects on stomatal closure and opening in Arabidopsis. Mishra, G., Zhang, W., Deng, F., Zhao, J., Wang, X. Science (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Three spinach leaf nitrate reductase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinases that are required by reversible phosphorylation and/or Ca2+ ions. Douglas, P., Pigaglio, E., Ferrer, A., Halfords, N.G., MacKintosh, C. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
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