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Gene Review

RPN4  -  Rpn4p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: D2840, Nuclear protein SON1, Protein RPN4, SON1, UFD5, ...
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Disease relevance of RPN4

  • Furthermore, heat-induced expression of Rpn4 protein leads to expression of Rpn4 targets at later stages of heat stress, providing a temporal controlling mechanism for proteasome synthesis upon stress conditions that could result in irreversibly damaged proteins [1].

High impact information on RPN4

  • Further, we demonstrate that RPN4 is extremely short-lived (t(1/2) approximately 2 min), that it directly interacts with RPN2, a subunit of the 26S proteasome, and that rpn4Delta cells are perturbed in their cell cycle [2].
  • The degradation signal of RPN4 was mapped to its N-terminal region, outside the transcription-activation domains of RPN4 [2].
  • Regulatory networks revealed by transcriptional profiling of damaged Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells: Rpn4 links base excision repair with proteasomes [3].
  • We found that the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Rpn4 can be mediated by six different lysines [4].
  • The biological significance of Ubr2-mediated degradation of Rpn4 is also discussed [5].

Biological context of RPN4


Associations of RPN4 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of RPN4

  • Pdr3p, but not Pdr1p, is required for normal levels of intracellular proteolysis, indicating that the two transcription factors have distinct functions in the control of RPN4 expression [6].
  • Two of the five genes thus identified, UFD1 and UFD5, function at post-ubiquitination steps in the UFD pathway [10].
  • In these mutants, transcriptional induction of UBI4 was depending in part on the transcription factor Rpn4 [7].
  • The role of Rpn4p to function as a transregulator in yeast is corroborated by its ability of stimulating proteasome-associated control element-driven lacZ expression and by experiments using the RPT4 and RPT6 gene promoters coupled to the bacterial cat gene as a reporter [11].
  • UFD5 is identical to the previously identified SON1, isolated as an extragenic suppressor of sec63 alleles that impair the transport of proteins into the nucleus [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RPN4

  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using proteasome-associated control element sequences from two regulatory proteasomal genes confirmed specific binding of purified Rpn4p to these sequences [11].
  • The FPLC fractions were analyzed by Western blotting using anti-Son1p antibody and antibodies against some authentic subunits of the 26S proteasome, and we found that Son1p co-migrated with components of the 26S proteasome [12].


  1. A stress regulatory network for co-ordinated activation of proteasome expression mediated by yeast heat shock transcription factor. Hahn, J.S., Neef, D.W., Thiele, D.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. RPN4 is a ligand, substrate, and transcriptional regulator of the 26S proteasome: a negative feedback circuit. Xie, Y., Varshavsky, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulatory networks revealed by transcriptional profiling of damaged Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells: Rpn4 links base excision repair with proteasomes. Jelinsky, S.A., Estep, P., Church, G.M., Samson, L.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of the Preferential Ubiquitination Site and Ubiquitin-dependent Degradation Signal of Rpn4. Ju, D., Xie, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Rpn4 is a physiological substrate of the Ubr2 ubiquitin ligase. Wang, L., Mao, X., Ju, D., Xie, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Control of 26S proteasome expression by transcription factors regulating multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Owsianik, G., Balzi l, L., Ghislain, M. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulatory mechanisms controlling biogenesis of ubiquitin and the proteasome. London, M.K., Keck, B.I., Ramos, P.C., Dohmen, R.J. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Extragenic suppressors of mutations in the cytoplasmic C terminus of SEC63 define five genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nelson, M.K., Kurihara, T., Silver, P.A. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Integrated assessment and prediction of transcription factor binding. Beyer, A., Workman, C., Hollunder, J., Radke, D., Möller, U., Wilhelm, T., Ideker, T. PLoS Comput. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. A proteolytic pathway that recognizes ubiquitin as a degradation signal. Johnson, E.S., Ma, P.C., Ota, I.M., Varshavsky, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Rpn4p acts as a transcription factor by binding to PACE, a nonamer box found upstream of 26S proteasomal and other genes in yeast. Mannhaupt, G., Schnall, R., Karpov, V., Vetter, I., Feldmann, H. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Son1p is a component of the 26S proteasome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fujimuro, M., Tanaka, K., Yokosawa, H., Toh-e, A. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
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