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Gene Review

SAC3  -  Sac3p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: LEP1, Leucine permease transcriptional regulator, Nuclear mRNA export protein SAC3, YD8358.13, YDR159W
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High impact information on SAC3

  • We show that overproduction of a sequence, termed CID, in the carboxy-terminal domain of the nuclear export factor Sac3 titrates Cdc31, causing a dominant-lethal phenotype and a block in spindle pole body (SPB) duplication [1].
  • In vivo, Sac3p forms a stable complex with Thp1p, which was reported to function in transcription elongation [2].
  • The mRNA export machinery requires the novel Sac3p-Thp1p complex to dock at the nucleoplasmic entrance of the nuclear pores [2].
  • In addition to the 11 subdomains common to Snf1-like serine/threonine kinases, Sac3 and the plant kinases have two additional subdomains and a highly acidic C-terminal region [3].
  • The role of Sac3 in the signal transduction system that regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation is discussed [3].

Biological context of SAC3

  • In this report we further show that SAC3 function is required for normal progression of mitosis [4].
  • SAC3 mutants showed a higher fraction of large-budded cells in culture, indicative of a cell cycle delay [4].
  • The observation that SAC3 mutants lose chromosomes with higher frequency than wild-type is another indication for a mitotic defect in SAC3 mutants [4].
  • Loss of SAC3 function results in a block in nuclear export of a nuclear export signal-containing reporter protein [5].
  • Furthermore, we examined the act1-1 and the sac3 mutants for defects in polarized cell growth by FITC-Concanavalin A (Con A)-labelling [6].

Anatomical context of SAC3


Associations of SAC3 with chemical compounds

  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEP1/SAC3 gene is associated with leucine transport [8].
  • Transformation of one such mutant, lep1, restored sensitivity to trifluoroleucine [8].
  • Furthermore, we report that the mRNA export factor Sac3 is involved in this galactose-induced enrichment of GAL loci at the nuclear periphery [9].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK) [3].
  • In contrast to its effect on arylsulfatase activity, Sac3 positively regulates the high-affinity sulfate transport system-the sac3 mutant is unable to fully induce high-affinity sulfate transport during sulfur limitation [3].

Regulatory relationships of SAC3

  • A temperature-sensitive mutation (act1-1) in the essential actin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be suppressed by mutations in the SAC3 gene [6].

Other interactions of SAC3

  • The original identification of SAC3 was based on the isolation of a mutant allele, sac3-1, that suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect of an actin mutant containing the allele act1-1 [8].
  • Taken together, our data suggest that the novel Sac3p-Thp1p complex functions by docking the mRNP to specific nucleoporins at the nuclear entrance of the NPC [2].
  • Altogether, our results suggest that Thp1p-Sac3p and Nab2p are functionally related heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins that define a further link between mRNA metabolism and transcription [10].
  • Furthermore, Sac3p was enriched 10-fold in a nuclei preparation along with the nuclear protein Nop1p [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SAC3


  1. Yeast centrin Cdc31 is linked to the nuclear mRNA export machinery. Fischer, T., Rodríguez-Navarro, S., Pereira, G., Rácz, A., Schiebel, E., Hurt, E. Nat. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The mRNA export machinery requires the novel Sac3p-Thp1p complex to dock at the nucleoplasmic entrance of the nuclear pores. Fischer, T., Strässer, K., Rácz, A., Rodriguez-Navarro, S., Oppizzi, M., Ihrig, P., Lechner, J., Hurt, E. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Sac3, an Snf1-like serine/threonine kinase that positively and negatively regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation. Davies, J.P., Yildiz, F.H., Grossman, A.R. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The SAC3 gene encodes a nuclear protein required for normal progression of mitosis. Bauer, A., Kölling, R. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. SAC3 may link nuclear protein export to cell cycle progression. Jones, A.L., Quimby, B.B., Hood, J.K., Ferrigno, P., Keshava, P.H., Silver, P.A., Corbett, A.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of the SAC3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bauer, A., Kölling, R. Yeast (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Sac3 is an mRNA export factor that localizes to cytoplasmic fibrils of nuclear pore complex. Lei, E.P., Stern, C.A., Fahrenkrog, B., Krebber, H., Moy, T.I., Aebi, U., Silver, P.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEP1/SAC3 gene is associated with leucine transport. Stella, C.A., Korch, C., Ramos, E.H., Bauer, A., Kölling, R., Mattoon, J.R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Motion as a phenotype: the use of live-cell imaging and machine visual screening to characterize transcription-dependent chromosome dynamics. Drubin, D.A., Garakani, A.M., Silver, P.A. BMC Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Nab2p and the Thp1p-Sac3p complex functionally interact at the interface between transcription and mRNA metabolism. Gallardo, M., Luna, R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Aguilera, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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