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Gene Review

DYN1  -  dynein heavy chain

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: DHC1, DYHC, Dynein heavy chain, cytoplasmic, Dynein heavy chain, cytosolic, PAC6, ...
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High impact information on DYN1

  • IC/Pac11 and LIC/Dyn3 are both essential for dynein function, similar to the heavy chain (HC/Dyn1) [1].
  • Fourth, dynein heavy chain Dyn1 also localized to the tips of cytoplasmic microtubules in wild-type cells [2].
  • Most significantly, the deletion of KIP2 greatly suppressed the spindle localization defect and slow growth exhibited by dyn1 kip3 cells [3].
  • Disruption of DYN1 causes misalignment of the spindle relative to the bud neck during cell division and results in abnormal distribution of the dividing nuclei between the mother cell and the bud [4].
  • Our results do not support the view that DHC-1 is required for anaphase B separation of spindle poles and chromosomes [5].

Biological context of DYN1

  • Mutant alleles of eight genes caused phenotypes similar to dyn1 (encodes the dynein heavy chain), including a spindle-positioning defect [6].
  • Sequencing of the gene (DHC1) for cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain of the filamentous ascomycete, Nectria haematococca, revealed a 4,349-codon open reading frame (interrupted by two introns) with four highly conserved P-loop motifs, typical of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chains [7].
  • The results support the hypothesis that DHC1 is required for the motility and functions of spindle pole bodies, normal secretory vesicle transport to the hyphal apex and normal hyphal tip cell morphogenesis [7].
  • The amino acid sequence of A. oryzae DhcA was similar to cytoplasmic dynein heavy chains from other organisms except for the N-terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dyn1 [8].
  • Mitosis in the dyn1 mutant, in contrast to that of wild-type yeast cells, was very frequently completed in the mother cells [9].

Anatomical context of DYN1

  • Our analyses of mutant embryos generated at permissive temperature and then upshifted quickly just before events of interest indicate that DHC-1 is required specifically for rotation of the centrosome/nucleus complex, for chromosome congression to a well ordered metaphase plate, and for timely initiation of anaphase [5].

Associations of DYN1 with chemical compounds

  • Conditionally lethal double mutants containing the temperature sensitive allele cin8-3 in a background deletion of either kip1 or dyn1 grew normally at the restrictive temperature when osmolytes such as sorbitol were added to the medium [10].

Other interactions of DYN1

  • Loss of function of Cin8p (a yeast kinesin-like motor protein) in the absence of either Kip1p (a motor of the same family) or Dyn1p (the dynein heavy chain) is lethal [10].
  • Our findings indicate that Kip2p participates in normal spindle positioning but antagonizes a positioning mechanism acting in dyn1 kip3 cells [3].
  • Surprisingly, factors involved in microtubule-mediated intracellular movement (Tub3, Dhc1, and Mlp2) appear to play no appreciable role in homolog juxtaposition, unlike their counterparts in fission yeast [11].


  1. The offloading model for dynein function: differential function of motor subunits. Lee, W.L., Kaiser, M.A., Cooper, J.A. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The role of the lissencephaly protein Pac1 during nuclear migration in budding yeast. Lee, W.L., Oberle, J.R., Cooper, J.A. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Mitotic spindle positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by antagonistically acting microtubule motor proteins. Cottingham, F.R., Hoyt, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytoplasmic dynein is required for normal nuclear segregation in yeast. Eshel, D., Urrestarazu, L.A., Vissers, S., Jauniaux, J.C., van Vliet-Reedijk, J.C., Planta, R.J., Gibbons, I.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional analysis of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain in Caenorhabditis elegans with fast-acting temperature-sensitive mutations. Schmidt, D.J., Rose, D.J., Saxton, W.M., Strome, S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required in the absence of the CIN8-encoded spindle motor act in functionally diverse mitotic pathways. Geiser, J.R., Schott, E.J., Kingsbury, T.J., Cole, N.B., Totis, L.J., Bhattacharyya, G., He, L., Hoyt, M.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of fungal dynein in hyphal growth, microtubule organization, spindle pole body motility and nuclear migration. Inoue, S., Turgeon, B.G., Yoder, O.C., Aist, J.R. J. Cell. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel role of cytoplasmic dynein motor in maintenance of the nuclear number in conidia through organized conidiation in Aspergillus oryzae. Maruyama, J., Nakajima, H., Kitamoto, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Deletion of the dynein heavy-chain gene DYN1 leads to aberrant nuclear positioning and defective hyphal development in Candida albicans. Martin, R., Walther, A., Wendland, J. Eukaryotic Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in the yeast kinesin-like Cin8p are alleviated by osmotic support. Korolyev, E., Steinberg-Neifach, O., Eshel, D. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of close stable homolog juxtaposition during meiosis in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lui, D.Y., Peoples-Holst, T.L., Mell, J.C., Wu, H.Y., Dean, E.W., Burgess, S.M. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
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