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Gene Review

RIO1  -  Rio1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: O3266, RRP10, Ribosomal RNA-processing protein 10, Serine/threonine-protein kinase RIO1, YOR119C, ...
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Disease relevance of RIO1

  • Recombinant Rio1p from Escherichia coli and tagged Rio1p from yeast has kinase activity in vitro, and mutation of amino acid residues that are conserved and indispensable for catalytic activity (i.e. ATP-binding motif, catalytic centre) abrogates activity [1].

High impact information on RIO1

  • We isolated a RIO1 mutant in a screen for mutations synthetically lethal with a mutant allele of GAR1, an essential gene required for 18S rRNA production and rRNA pseudouridylation [2].
  • Previous studies showed that the RIO1 gene is essential for cell viability and conserved from archaebacteria to man [2].
  • These results strongly suggest that Rio2p and Rrp10p/Rio1p are shuttling proteins which associate with pre-40S particles in the nucleus and they are not necessary for export of the pre-40S complexes but are absolutely required for the cytoplasmic maturation of 20S pre-rRNA at site D, leading to mature 40S ribosomal subunits [3].
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rio2p (encoded by open reading frame Ynl207w) is an essential protein of unknown function that displays significant sequence similarity to Rio1p/Rrp10p [4].
  • The type of basal promoter determines the regulated or constitutive mode of transcription in the common control region of the yeast gene pair GCY1/RIO1 [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of RIO1

  • We show that recombinant wild-type Rio1p isolated from Escherichia coli displays kinase activity which depends on autophosphorylation and magnesium or manganese as ATP-activating ions [6].

Biological context of RIO1

  • GCY1 has a TATA box obeying the consensus TATAAA, whereas the RIO1 5'-upstream region lacks such a motif [5].
  • RIO1 is essential in yeast and plays a role in cell cycle progression [1].
  • The weak RIO1 allele leads to increased plasmid loss [1].
  • After sporulation of RIO1/rio1 diploids, RIO1-disrupted progeny cease growth after one to three cell divisions and arrest as either large unbudded or large-budded cells [1].
  • While the enzymatic activity of Rio1 and Rio2 has been demonstrated and both have been shown to be essential in S. cerevisiae and required for proper cell cycle progression and chromosome maintenance, the biological substrates of RIO proteins still remain to be identified [7].

Associations of RIO1 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RIO1

  • In situ hybridization reveals that, in Rio1p depleted cells, 20S pre-rRNA localizes in the cytoplasm, demonstrating that its accumulation is not due to an export defect [2].
  • Nevertheless, analysis of multiple protein sequence alignments shows that those amino acid residues that are important for either structure or catalytic activity in conventional protein kinases are also conserved in members of the Rio1p family at the respective positions (corresponding to domains I-XI of protein kinases) [1].


  1. Yeast Rio1p is the founding member of a novel subfamily of protein serine kinases involved in the control of cell cycle progression. Angermayr, M., Roidl, A., Bandlow, W. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Processing of 20S pre-rRNA to 18S ribosomal RNA in yeast requires Rrp10p, an essential non-ribosomal cytoplasmic protein. Vanrobays, E., Gleizes, P.E., Bousquet-Antonelli, C., Noaillac-Depeyre, J., Caizergues-Ferrer, M., Gélugne, J.P. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Late cytoplasmic maturation of the small ribosomal subunit requires RIO proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vanrobays, E., Gelugne, J.P., Gleizes, P.E., Caizergues-Ferrer, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Rio2p, an evolutionarily conserved, low abundant protein kinase essential for processing of 20 S Pre-rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Geerlings, T.H., Faber, A.W., Bister, M.D., Vos, J.C., Raué, H.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The type of basal promoter determines the regulated or constitutive mode of transcription in the common control region of the yeast gene pair GCY1/RIO1. Angermayr, M., Bandlow, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. RIO1, an extraordinary novel protein kinase. Angermayr, M., Bandlow, W. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The RIO kinases: an atypical protein kinase family required for ribosome biogenesis and cell cycle progression. Laronde-LeBlanc, N., Wlodawer, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A nucleosome-free dG-dC-rich sequence element promotes constitutive transcription of the essential yeast RIO1 gene. Angermayr, M., Schwerdffeger, K., Bandlow, W. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Crystal structure of A. fulgidus Rio2 defines a new family of serine protein kinases. LaRonde-LeBlanc, N., Wlodawer, A. Structure (Camb.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure and activity of the atypical serine kinase Rio1. Laronde-Leblanc, N., Guszczynski, T., Copeland, T., Wlodawer, A. FEBS J. (2005) [Pubmed]
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