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Gene Review

GALR2  -  galanin receptor 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GAL2-R, GALNR2, GALR-2, Galanin receptor type 2
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High impact information on GALR2


Biological context of GALR2


Anatomical context of GALR2

  • Sequencing of the PCR products proved the presence of GALR2 mRNA in the keratinocytes [5].
  • Immunohistochemical investigations of normal human skin specimens revealed that GALR2 was expressed with high intensity in the basal layer of the epidermis and also around the hair follicles in the dermis [5].
  • On the other hand, stimulation of the GAL2 receptor at the raphe level by local application of the GAL2 receptor agonist galanin (2-11) has been shown to increase serotonin levels in the hippocampus and dorsal raphe [6].

Associations of GALR2 with chemical compounds

  • Galanin enhances corticosterone secretion from dispersed rat adrenocortical cells through the activation of GAL-R1 and GAL-R2 receptors coupled to the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade [7].
  • We conclude that rat inner adrenocortical cells express GAL-R1 and GAL-R2 as mRNA and protein, and galanin stimulates corticosterone secretion acting via these receptor subtypes which are both coupled to the adenylate cyclase/PKA-dependent signaling pathway [7].

Other interactions of GALR2

  • GAL treatment of the keratinocytes resulted in an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that GALR2 is a functional receptor [5].
  • This conservation of structural organization is indicative of a common evolutionary origin for GALNR2 and GALNR3 [8].


  1. Activation of the galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) protects the hippocampus from neuronal damage. Elliott-Hunt, C.R., Pope, R.J., Vanderplank, P., Wynick, D. J. Neurochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis of human GALR1 galanin receptor defines determinants of receptor subtype specificity. Church, W.B., Jones, K.A., Kuiper, D.A., Shine, J., Iismaa, T.P. Protein Eng. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. Fathi, Z., Battaglino, P.M., Iben, L.G., Li, H., Baker, E., Zhang, D., McGovern, R., Mahle, C.D., Sutherland, G.R., Iismaa, T.P., Dickinson, K.E., Zimanyi, I.A. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. Borowsky, B., Walker, M.W., Huang, L.Y., Jones, K.A., Smith, K.E., Bard, J., Branchek, T.A., Gerald, C. Peptides (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Galanin receptor expression in cultured human keratinocytes and in normal human skin. Dallos, A., Kiss, M., Polyánka, H., Dobozy, A., Kemény, L., Husz, S. J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Galanin receptor antagonists : a potential novel pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Ogren, S.O., Kuteeva, E., Hökfelt, T., Kehr, J. CNS drugs. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Galanin enhances corticosterone secretion from dispersed rat adrenocortical cells through the activation of GAL-R1 and GAL-R2 receptors coupled to the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade. Andreis, P.G., Malendowicz, L.K., Rebuffat, P., Spinazzi, R., Ziolkowska, A., Nussdorfer, G.G. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Structural organization and chromosomal localization of three human galanin receptor genes. Iismaa, T.P., Fathi, Z., Hort, Y.J., Iben, L.G., Dutton, J.L., Baker, E., Sutherland, G.R., Shine, J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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