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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Hair Follicle

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Disease relevance of Hair Follicle


High impact information on Hair Follicle


Chemical compound and disease context of Hair Follicle

  • Interleukin 1 protects hair follicles from cytarabine (ARA-C)-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro [11].
  • These data demonstrate that by suppressing ovarian androgen production, nafarelin may be useful for the treatment of hirsutism associated with either increased ovarian androgen production or increased sensitivity of the hair follicle to normal concentrations of circulating androgens [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increased AR gene activity observed in PP patients, as indicated by the reduced AR gene methylation pattern, together with the presence of shorter CAG repeats, might lead to hypersensitivity of the hair follicles to steroid hormones and therefore to the premature development of pubic hair [13].
  • 1. In cats under chloralose anaesthesia single lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion cells of hair follicle afferent fibres were stimulated intracellularly to produce trains or pairs of impulses [14].
  • The present studies were undertaken to topographically localize the site of injury in the hair follicle after doxorubicin (DXR) administration and to investigate the mechanism of DXR-induced alopecia [15].

Biological context of Hair Follicle


Anatomical context of Hair Follicle

  • Mice with mutations in the downless (dl) gene have defects in hair follicle induction, lack sweat glands and have malformed teeth [17].
  • Agouti, which is produced in the hair follicle, acts on follicular melanocytes to inhibit alpha-MSH-induced eumelanin production, resulting in the subterminal band of phaeomelanin often visible in mammalian fur [2].
  • The transcriptional repressor CDP (Cutl1) is essential for epithelial cell differentiation of the lung and the hair follicle [18].
  • We show that LEF-1 mRNA is present in pluripotent ectoderm, and it is up-regulated in a highly restricted pattern just before the formation of underlying mesenchymal condensates and commitment of overlying ectodermal cells to invaginate and become hair follicles [20].
  • No collagenase mRNA was found in the epidermis of healthy skin, although occasional stromal cells contained collagenase or TIMP mRNAs, and TIMP mRNA was detected in hair follicles and sebaceous glands [21].

Associations of Hair Follicle with chemical compounds


Gene context of Hair Follicle

  • Expression of Fgf5 is detected in hair follicles from wild-type mice and is localized to the outer root sheath during the anagen VI phase of the hair growth cycle [26].
  • Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development [3].
  • Finally, we address the underlying mechanism and show that in the SC niche, Wnt signaling and beta-catenin stabilization transiently activate Lef1/Tcf complexes and promote their binding to target genes that promote TA cell conversion and proliferation to form the activated cells of the newly developing hair follicle [27].
  • Unexpectedly, the only regions of epidermis especially responsive to TGF-alpha overexpression were those that were normally thick and where hair follicle density was typically low [28].
  • By transgenic rescue experiments, we show that epidermal Gli2 function alone is sufficient to restore hair follicle development in Gli2(-/-) skin [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hair Follicle


  1. TGF alpha deficiency results in hair follicle and eye abnormalities in targeted and waved-1 mice. Luetteke, N.C., Qiu, T.H., Peiffer, R.L., Oliver, P., Smithies, O., Lee, D.C. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Agouti protein is an antagonist of the melanocyte-stimulating-hormone receptor. Lu, D., Willard, D., Patel, I.R., Kadwell, S., Overton, L., Kost, T., Luther, M., Chen, W., Woychik, R.P., Wilkison, W.O. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development. Mill, P., Mo, R., Fu, H., Grachtchouk, M., Kim, P.C., Dlugosz, A.A., Hui, C.C. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Autoimmune hair loss (alopecia areata) transferred by T lymphocytes to human scalp explants on SCID mice. Gilhar, A., Ullmann, Y., Berkutzki, T., Assy, B., Kalish, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of adenovirus-mediated expression of Sonic hedgehog gene on hair regrowth in mice with chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Sato, N., Leopold, P.L., Crystal, R.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp is associated with nonsense mutations in CDSN encoding corneodesmosin. Levy-Nissenbaum, E., Betz, R.C., Frydman, M., Simon, M., Lahat, H., Bakhan, T., Goldman, B., Bygum, A., Pierick, M., Hillmer, A.M., Jonca, N., Toribio, J., Kruse, R., Dewald, G., Cichon, S., Kubisch, C., Guerrin, M., Serre, G., Nöthen, M.M., Pras, E. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Desmoglein 4 in hair follicle differentiation and epidermal adhesion: evidence from inherited hypotrichosis and acquired pemphigus vulgaris. Kljuic, A., Bazzi, H., Sundberg, J.P., Martinez-Mir, A., O'Shaughnessy, R., Mahoney, M.G., Levy, M., Montagutelli, X., Ahmad, W., Aita, V.M., Gordon, D., Uitto, J., Whiting, D., Ott, J., Fischer, S., Gilliam, T.C., Jahoda, C.A., Morris, R.J., Panteleyev, A.A., Nguyen, V.T., Christiano, A.M. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. beta-Catenin controls hair follicle morphogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the skin. Huelsken, J., Vogel, R., Erdmann, B., Cotsarelis, G., Birchmeier, W. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Deregulated expression of c-Myc depletes epidermal stem cells. Waikel, R.L., Kawachi, Y., Waikel, P.A., Wang, X.J., Roop, D.R. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in Sox18 underlie cardiovascular and hair follicle defects in ragged mice. Pennisi, D., Gardner, J., Chambers, D., Hosking, B., Peters, J., Muscat, G., Abbott, C., Koopman, P. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Interleukin 1 protects hair follicles from cytarabine (ARA-C)-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Jimenez, J.J., Sawaya, M.E., Yunis, A.A. FASEB J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of hirsutism with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (nafarelin). Andreyko, J.L., Monroe, S.E., Jaffe, R.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreased androgen receptor gene methylation in premature pubarche: a novel pathogenetic mechanism? Vottero, A., Capelletti, M., Giuliodori, S., Viani, I., Ziveri, M., Neri, T.M., Bernasconi, S., Ghizzoni, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Actions of trains and pairs of impulses from single primary afferent fibres on single spinocervical tract cells in cat. Brown, A.G., Koerber, H.R., Noble, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Apoptosis of hair follicle cells during doxorubicin-induced alopecia in rats. Cece, R., Cazzaniga, S., Morelli, D., Sfondrini, L., Bignotto, M., Ménard, S., Colnaghi, M.I., Balsari, A. Lab. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. De Novo hair follicle morphogenesis and hair tumors in mice expressing a truncated beta-catenin in skin. Gat, U., DasGupta, R., Degenstein, L., Fuchs, E. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Involvement of a novel Tnf receptor homologue in hair follicle induction. Headon, D.J., Overbeek, P.A. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The transcriptional repressor CDP (Cutl1) is essential for epithelial cell differentiation of the lung and the hair follicle. Ellis, T., Gambardella, L., Horcher, M., Tschanz, S., Capol, J., Bertram, P., Jochum, W., Barrandon, Y., Busslinger, M. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Disruption of Stat3 reveals a critical role in both the initiation and the promotion stages of epithelial carcinogenesis. Chan, K.S., Sano, S., Kiguchi, K., Anders, J., Komazawa, N., Takeda, J., DiGiovanni, J. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 directs hair follicle patterning and epithelial cell fate. Zhou, P., Byrne, C., Jacobs, J., Fuchs, E. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Distinct localization of collagenase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases expression in wound healing associated with ulcerative pyogenic granuloma. Saarialho-Kere, U.K., Chang, E.S., Welgus, H.G., Parks, W.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Idiopathic hirsutism. Azziz, R., Carmina, E., Sawaya, M.E. Endocr. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Efficient delivery of transgenes to human hair follicle progenitor cells using topical lipoplex. Domashenko, A., Gupta, S., Cotsarelis, G. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Localized in vivo genotypic and phenotypic correction of the albino mutation in skin by RNA-DNA oligonucleotide. Alexeev, V., Igoucheva, O., Domashenko, A., Cotsarelis, G., Yoon, K. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Skin toxicity determined in vitro by three-dimensional, native-state histoculture. Li, L.N., Margolis, L.B., Hoffman, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. FGF5 as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted and spontaneous mutations. Hébert, J.M., Rosenquist, T., Götz, J., Martin, G.R. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Defining the impact of beta-catenin/Tcf transactivation on epithelial stem cells. Lowry, W.E., Blanpain, C., Nowak, J.A., Guasch, G., Lewis, L., Fuchs, E. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Transgenic mice provide new insights into the role of TGF-alpha during epidermal development and differentiation. Vassar, R., Fuchs, E. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of keratin K14 in the epidermis and hair follicle: insights into complex programs of differentiation. Coulombe, P.A., Kopan, R., Fuchs, E. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of the mouse tyrosinase gene during embryonic development: recapitulation of the temporal regulation in transgenic mice. Beermann, F., Schmid, E., Schütz, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Prolactin and its receptor are expressed in murine hair follicle epithelium, show hair cycle-dependent expression, and induce catagen. Foitzik, K., Krause, K., Nixon, A.J., Ford, C.A., Ohnemus, U., Pearson, A.J., Paus, R. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Growth factors and cytokines in hair follicle development and cycling: recent insights from animal models and the potentials for clinical therapy. Danilenko, D.M., Ring, B.D., Pierce, G.F. Molecular medicine today. (1996) [Pubmed]
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