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Gene Review

Galr2  -  galanin receptor 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: GAL2-R, GALR-2, Galanin receptor type 2, Galnr2
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Disease relevance of Galr2


High impact information on Galr2

  • GALR2-EGFP on the plasma membrane was internalized within 5-10 min after treatment with galanin or AR-M1896, a selective GALR2 agonist, with a dramatic reduction in plasma membrane localization and appearance in intracellular vesicles [2].
  • Taken together these findings indicate that GALR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis and recycling and that both ligand-independent and ligand-dependent internalization use the clathrin-dependent endocytic recycling pathway [2].
  • GAL-R2 would appear to be expressed only in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus [3].
  • The GALR2 cDNA encoded a protein of 372 amino acids exhibiting 38% amino acid identity with rat GALR1 [4].
  • VM cultures expressed GALR1, GALR2, and GALR3 receptor mRNA [5].

Biological context of Galr2


Anatomical context of Galr2


Associations of Galr2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Galr2


Other interactions of Galr2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Galr2


  1. Cloning, pharmacological characterization and distribution of a novel galanin receptor. Fathi, Z., Cunningham, A.M., Iben, L.G., Battaglino, P.B., Ward, S.A., Nichol, K.A., Pine, K.A., Wang, J., Goldstein, M.E., Iismaa, T.P., Zimanyi, I.A. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Visualization of a functionally enhanced GFP-tagged galanin R2 receptor in PC12 cells: constitutive and ligand-induced internalization. Xia, S., Kjaer, S., Zheng, K., Hu, P.S., Bai, L., Jia, J.Y., Rigler, R., Pramanik, A., Xu, T., Hökfelt, T., Xu, Z.Q. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of a high-affinity galanin receptor in the rat anterior pituitary: absence of biological effect and reduced membrane binding of the antagonist M15 differentiate it from the brain/gut receptor. Wynick, D., Smith, D.M., Ghatei, M., Akinsanya, K., Bhogal, R., Purkiss, P., Byfield, P., Yanaihara, N., Bloom, S.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression cloning of a rat hypothalamic galanin receptor coupled to phosphoinositide turnover. Smith, K.E., Forray, C., Walker, M.W., Jones, K.A., Tamm, J.A., Bard, J., Branchek, T.A., Linemeyer, D.L., Gerald, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Galanin inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase expression in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Counts, S.E., McGuire, S.O., Sortwell, C.E., Crawley, J.N., Collier, T.J., Mufson, E.J. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new receptor for galanin. Howard, A.D., Tan, C., Shiao, L.L., Palyha, O.C., McKee, K.K., Weinberg, D.H., Feighner, S.D., Cascieri, M.A., Smith, R.G., Van Der Ploeg, L.H., Sullivan, K.A. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Constitutive and ligand-induced internalization of EGFP-tagged galanin R2 and Rl receptors in PC12 cells. Xia, S., Kjaer, S., Zheng, K., Hu, P.S., Xu, T., Hökfelt, T., Xu, Z.Q. Neuropeptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning and evaluation of the role of rat GALR-2, a novel subtype of galanin receptor, in the control of pain perception. Ahmad, S., O'Donnell, D., Payza, K., Ducharme, J., Ménard, D., Brown, W., Schmidt, R., Wahlestedt, C., Shen, S.H., Walker, P. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Galanin/GMAP- and NPY-like immunoreactivities in locus coeruleus and noradrenergic nerve terminals in the hippocampal formation and cortex with notes on the galanin-R1 and -R2 receptors. Xu, Z.Q., Shi, T.J., Hökfelt, T. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of the novel galanin receptor subtype GALR2 in the adult rat CNS: distinct distribution from GALR1. O'Donnell, D., Ahmad, S., Wahlestedt, C., Walker, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Alteration of gene expression of G protein-coupled receptors in endocrine disruptors-caused hyperactive rats. Ishido, M., Morita, M., Oka, S., Masuo, Y. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Determination of changes in mRNA expression in a rat model of neuropathic pain by Taqman quantitative RT-PCR. Macdonald, R., Bingham, S., Bond, B.C., Parsons, A.A., Philpott, K.L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptome of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-differentiated PC12 cells. Ishido, M., Masuo, Y. Regul. Pept. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of hypothalamic neurons expressing a neuropeptide receptor, GALR2, using combined in situ hybridization-immunohistochemistry. Nichol, K.A., Depczynski, B.B., Cunningham, A.M. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Distribution and characterization of the cell types expressing GALR2 mRNA in brain and pituitary gland. Depczynski, B., Nichol, K., Fathi, Z., Iismaa, T., Shine, J., Cunningham, A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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