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Gene Review

glmM  -  phosphoglucosamine mutase

Helicobacter pylori J99

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Disease relevance of glmM


High impact information on glmM

  • The number of nonsynonymous substitutions was much higher in cagA than in glmM, indicating positive selection [6].
  • Bacterial isolates were typed with random amplified polymorphic DNA and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the genes ureA-B, glmM, or flaA [7].
  • One hundred twenty-six urease-negative gastric biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter genus-specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and H. pylori-specific glmM DNA sequences by PCR [8].
  • The species specificity of the glmM PCR assay was demonstrated, as H. pylori was the only Helicobacter species that yielded the expected glmM amplicon [8].
  • Here we report the development of a real-time quantitative (Q) PCR-based assay to measure ureC gene copy number to detect H. pylori, based on the fact that there is only one copy of the ureC gene per bacterium [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of glmM


Biological context of glmM

  • While performing pathogenicity island cagA gene detection to discriminate pathogenic strains in atherosclerotic carotid samples, several cagA-positive but glmM-negative samples were found [1].
  • PCR of a glmM gene segment was superior to the other methods for the detection of H. pylori infection and was comparable to histology in terms of cost [11].
  • The paired strains from each single biopsy had identical lspA-glmM restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles, and the differences in MTZ susceptibility were mostly accounted for by mutations in the rdxA gene [12].
  • RAPD-PCR and sequencing of glmM PCR product confirmed the strain identities of colonies with different cag genotypes [13].
  • Accuracy and precision were verified using a plasmid containing a 977-bp fragment of this glmM gene [14].

Anatomical context of glmM

  • The three pre- and post-inoculation strains had identical glmM sequences and RAPD profiles, and stimulated luciferase secretion from L5F11 epithelial cells [15].
  • Bacteria in the oral cavity were detected by nested PCR of samples containing saliva and dental plaque, using primers specific for 16S rRNA and ureC genes [16].
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a highly significant association between H pylori ureC and cagA genes in the stomach, trachea, and lung of cases of SIDS when compared with controls [5].

Other interactions of glmM

  • Genetic characterisation of Helicobacter pylori isolates from an Argentinean adult population based on cag pathogenicity island right-end motifs, lspA-glmM polymorphism and iceA and vacA genotypes [17].
  • Direct PCR on gastric tissue was performed using primers for glmM and cagA, and for these two genes and for cagE and virB11 using DNA from the infecting and the emerging strains [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of glmM

  • Sequencing of glmM and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting of DNA from cultured H. pylori were used to evaluate the genetic identity of pre-inoculated and post-inoculated strains [15].
  • In the present study the most reliable results for H. pylori detection as well as the most pronounced correlation were obtained by using the PCR technique with primers for the ureC gene, immunohistochemistry and staining according to Giemsa [19].
  • PCR products using the ureC gene were digested with restriction enzymes Hha I, Mbo I, and Hind III, and the fragments generated were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis [20].
  • Extracted DNA from these tissues was tested for H pylori ureC and cagA sequences by nested polymerase chain reaction and amplicons detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) [5].


  1. Seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Helicobacter pylori DNA in carotid atheromas. Arias, E., Martinetto, H., Schultz, M., Ameriso, S., Rivera, S., Lossetti, O., Sevlever, G. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of a novel heminested PCR assay based on the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva and dental plaque. Goosen, C., Theron, J., Ntsala, M., Maree, F.F., Olckers, A., Botha, S.J., Lastovica, A.J., van der Merwe, S.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by PCR: comparison with other invasive techniques and detection of cagA gene in gastric biopsy specimens. Lage, A.P., Godfroid, E., Fauconnier, A., Burette, A., Butzler, J.P., Bollen, A., Glupczynski, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Patients younger than 40 years with gastric carcinoma: Helicobacter pylori genotype and associated gastritis phenotype. Rugge, M., Busatto, G., Cassaro, M., Shiao, Y.H., Russo, V., Leandro, G., Avellini, C., Fabiano, A., Sidoni, A., Covacci, A. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. An association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and Helicobacter pylori infection. Kerr, J.R., Al-Khattaf, A., Barson, A.J., Burnie, J.P. Arch. Dis. Child. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori populations in China and The Netherlands are distinct. van der Ende, A., Pan, Z.J., Bart, A., van der Hulst, R.W., Feller, M., Xiao, S.D., Tytgat, G.N., Dankert, J. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Concordance of Helicobacter pylori strains within families. Kivi, M., Tindberg, Y., Sörberg, M., Casswall, T.H., Befrits, R., Hellström, P.M., Bengtsson, C., Engstrand, L., Granström, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular evidence of Helicobacter cinaedi organisms in human gastric biopsy specimens. Peña, J.A., McNeil, K., Fox, J.G., Versalovic, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Real-time quantitative PCR for detection of Helicobacter pylori. He, Q., Wang, J.P., Osato, M., Lachman, L.B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. PCR-RFLP typing of ureC from Helicobacter pylori isolated in Argentina from gastric biopsies before and after treatment with clarithromycin. Stone, G.G., Shortridge, D., Flamm, R.K., Beyer, J., Stamler, D., Tanaka, S.K. Epidemiol. Infect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection by polymerase chain reaction: is it worth it? Brooks, H.J., Ahmed, D., McConnell, M.A., Barbezat, G.O. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA sequence analysis of rdxA and frxA from paired metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates obtained from patients with heteroresistance. Matteo, M.J., Pérez, C.V., Domingo, M.R., Olmos, M., Sanchez, C., Catalano, M. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Heterogeneity of cag genotypes and clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection. Sozzi, M., Tomasini, M.L., Vindigni, C., Zanussi, S., Tedeschi, R., Basaglia, G., Figura, N., De Paoli, P. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori: no association with sudden infant death syndrome. Loddenkötter, B., Becker, K., Hohoff, C., Brinkmann, B., Bajanowski, T. Int. J. Legal Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Infection of Mongolian gerbils with Chinese Helicobacter pylori strains. Wang, J., Court, M., Jeremy, A.H., Aboshkiwa, M.A., Robinson, P.A., Crabtree, J.E. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity reflects handling of contaminants but not gastric infection. Doré-Davin, C., Heitz, M., Yang, H., Herranz, M., Blum, A.L., Corthésy-Theulaz, I. Digestion (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic characterisation of Helicobacter pylori isolates from an Argentinean adult population based on cag pathogenicity island right-end motifs, lspA-glmM polymorphism and iceA and vacA genotypes. Leanza, A.G., Matteo, M.J., Crespo, O., Antelo, P., Olmos, J., Catalano, M. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori cag genotypes in experimentally infected mice. Sozzi, M., Crosatti, M., Kim, S.K., Romero, J., Blaser, M.J. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. The detection of Helicobacter pylori in paraffin sections using the PCR technique and various primers as compared to histological techniques. Ciesielska, U., Dziegiel, P., Jagoda, E., Podhorska-Okołów, M., Zabel, M. Folia morphologica. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Differentiation between reinfection and recrudescence of helicobacter pylori strains using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Jeen, Y.T., Lee, S.W., Kwon, S.I., Chun, H.J., Lee, H.S., Song, C.W., Um, S.H., Choi, J.H., Kim, C.D., Ryu, H.S., Hyun, J.H. Yonsei Med. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
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