The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Dental Plaque

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Dental Plaque

  • Streptococcus gordonii and Veillonella atypica, two early colonizing members of the dental plaque biofilm, have been postulated to participate in metabolic communication; S. gordonii ferments carbohydrates to form lactic acid, which is a preferred fermentation substrate for V. atypica [1].
  • The aim of this study was to measure the effect of fluoride on the production of organic acids by Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque [2].
  • For dental plaque organisms such as Streptococcus sanguis, the ecological importance of the ability to utilize arginine as an energy source has been established in previous studies [3].
  • Serotype-specific antisera prepared against whole cells of Actinomyces viscosus, A. naeslundii, and A. israeli were labeled with fluorescein dye and used to detect and quantitate antigenically related microorganisms in human dental plaque [4].
  • The data show that many commonly occurring bacterial species found in dental plaque contain PC antigen and that immunization with plaque-derived PC antigens as a consequence of inflammation and periodontal attachment loss may influence systemic anti-PC antibody concentrations [5].

High impact information on Dental Plaque

  • We have now identified putative nanobacteria, not only from FBS, but also from human saliva and dental plaque after the incubation of 0.45-microm membrane-filtered samples in DMEM [6].
  • Dental plaque samples from 40 children were screened for the presence of bacteria resistant to amoxicillin [7].
  • Dental plaque microcosms were established under a feast-famine regimen within constant-depth film fermentors and exposed four times daily postfeeding to a triclosan (TR)-containing rinse (dentifrice) (TRD) [8].
  • Phosphorylcholine-dependent cross-reactivity between dental plaque bacteria and oxidized low-density lipoproteins [9].
  • Galactose oxidase-glucan binding domain fusion proteins as targeting inhibitors of dental plaque bacteria [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dental Plaque

  • Microbial populations growing in the presence of fluoride at low pH isolated from dental plaque of children living in an area with fluoridated water [11].
  • Clearly, diet (sucrose in particular) influences the colonization and multiplication of specific cariogenic organisms in dental plaque [12].
  • One analogue, N N,''''-1,6-hexanediyl bis[N'(n-octyl)imidodicarbonimidic diamide], appeared to be more effective than either 1 or chlorhexidine against this spectrum of dental plaque forming microorganisms [13].
  • Microflora and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance [12].
  • In the present investigation, the proportions of Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli, Streptococcus sanguis, veillonellae, and an unidentified actinomyces-like organism in dental plaque on occlusal fissures of first mandibular molars were monitored at 6-month intervals over a 3-year period in 368 children who were initially in grades 1 or 2 [14].

Biological context of Dental Plaque


Anatomical context of Dental Plaque

  • A collection of 459 streptococcal strains, including reference strains of Streptococcus species, and fresh isolates from human dental plaque and buccal and pharyngeal mucosa were identified by biochemical means and were examined for IgA1 protease production [20].
  • These experiments demonstrate that dental plaque activates serum to form C5a which in turn releases histamine from basophils [21].
  • It is concluded that triclosan may contribute to the protection of dentin under a mild acid attack both when it is present in dental plaque and when it has been adsorbed to the dentin [22].
  • This reflects proteolytic activation of leukocyte collagenase in dental plaque probably by other proteases derived from potent periodontopathogenic bacteria such as T. denticola or other PMN proteases such as cathepsin G.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[23]
  • METHODS: The release of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) from macrophages was investigated when the macrophages were exposed to metal ions, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of dental plaque [24].

Gene context of Dental Plaque

  • CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that cigarette smoking increases the amount of dental plaque over time in smokers and does not influence GCF contents of IL-6 and TNF-alpha [25].
  • Thus, in individuals with an enhanced reactivity to dental plaque, a higher plasminogen activating activity in GCF was seen [26].
  • Periodontal treatment eliminated the C. pneumoniae from the patient's subgingival dental plaque as well as reduced GCF MMP-8 level [27].
  • Streptococcus mutans produces a fructanase, the product of the fruA gene, which is capable of degrading beta(2,6)- and beta(2,1)-linked fructans that are commonly synthesized by dental plaque microorganisms [28].
  • In this study, we have cloned a new type (type V) of fimA from dental plaque samples [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dental Plaque

  • The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 0.2% hexetidine spray, used as a supplement to regular oral hygiene measures, on dental plaque and gingival condition following periodontal surgery [30].
  • The fluoride concentrations in dental plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets retained with a glass ionomer cement (GIC) or a resin-based composite were investigated using the split-mouth technique [31].
  • H. pylori was not cultured from dental plaque (15 patients), neither was H. pylori DNA detected by PCR in either urea breath test-positive or -negative individuals [32].
  • RESULTS: a) Plaque removal study: Brushing with the new oral care support instrument removed significantly more plaque than with the Plak Control D9011. b) Clinical study: The new oral care support instrument allows a more effective removal of dental plaque and shows a significant improvement in the gingival indices in dependent elderly [33].
  • This consisted of weekly fluoride mouthrinses (0.2%) and control of dental plaque by toothbrushing with a fluoride toothpaste [34].


  1. Interspecies communication in Streptococcus gordonii-Veillonella atypica biofilms: signaling in flow conditions requires juxtaposition. Egland, P.G., Palmer, R.J., Kolenbrander, P.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of fluoride on growth and acid production by Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. van der Hoeven, J.S., Franken, H.C. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Response of a Streptococcus sanguis strain to arginine-containing peptides. Rogers, A.H., Zilm, P.S., Gully, N.J., Pfennig, A.L. Infect. Immun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Rapid method for identification and enumeration of oral Actinomyces. Marucha, P.T., Keyes, P.H., Wittenberger, C.L., London, J. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiphosphorylcholine antibody levels are elevated in humans with periodontal diseases. Schenkein, H.A., Gunsolley, J.C., Best, A.M., Harrison, M.T., Hahn, C.L., Wu, J., Tew, J.G. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. An alternative interpretation of nanobacteria-induced biomineralization. Cisar, J.O., Xu, D.Q., Thompson, J., Swaim, W., Hu, L., Kopecko, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of amoxicillin use on oral microbiota in young children. Ready, D., Lancaster, H., Qureshi, F., Bedi, R., Mullany, P., Wilson, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of triclosan-containing rinse on the dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of in vitro plaque ecosystems. McBain, A.J., Bartolo, R.G., Catrenich, C.E., Charbonneau, D., Ledder, R.G., Gilbert, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylcholine-dependent cross-reactivity between dental plaque bacteria and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Schenkein, H.A., Berry, C.R., Purkall, D., Burmeister, J.A., Brooks, C.N., Tew, J.G. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Galactose oxidase-glucan binding domain fusion proteins as targeting inhibitors of dental plaque bacteria. Lis, M., Kuramitsu, H.K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Microbial populations growing in the presence of fluoride at low pH isolated from dental plaque of children living in an area with fluoridated water. Bowden, G.H., Odlum, O., Nolette, N., Hamilton, I.R. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Microflora and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance. Hoover, C.I., Newbrun, E., Mettraux, G., Graf, H. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro antiplaque properties of a series of alkyl bis(biguanides). Coburn, R.A., Baker, P.J., Evans, R.T., Genco, R.J., Fischman, S.L. J. Med. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Longitudinal investigation of bacteriology of human fissure decay: epidemiological studies in molars shortly after eruption. Loesche, W.J., Eklund, S., Earnest, R., Burt, B. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Prevalence of transformable Streptococcus mutans in human dental plaque. Westergren, G., Emilson, C.G. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of a small plasmid determining resistance to erythromycin, lincomycin, and vernamycin Balpha in a strain of Streptococcus sanguis isolated from dental plaque. Yagi, Y., McLellan, T.S., Frez, W.A., Clewell, D.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. In vivo effects of zinc and chlorhexidine on dental plaque ureolysis and glycolysis. Giertsen, E., Scheie, A.A., Rölla, G. J. Dent. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Hydrolysis of triclosan monophosphate by dental plaque and selected species of oral micro-organisms. Greenman, J., Nelson, D.G. J. Dent. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on nosocomial infections acquired in the intensive care unit: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study. Fourrier, F., Dubois, D., Pronnier, P., Herbecq, P., Leroy, O., Desmettre, T., Pottier-Cau, E., Boutigny, H., Di Pompéo, C., Durocher, A., Roussel-Delvallez, M. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Ecology and nature of immunoglobulin A1 protease-producing streptococci in the human oral cavity and pharynx. Kilian, M., Holmgren, K. Infect. Immun. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. The mechanism of basophil histamine release in patients with periodontal disease. Olsson-Wennström, A., Wennström, J.L., Mergenhagen, S.E., Siraganian, R.P. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Protection of dentin by triclosan toothpaste in a bacterial demineralisation model. van Loveren, C., Buijs, J.F., ten Cate, J.M. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Cellular source, activation and inhibition of dental plaque collagenase. Sorsa, T., Ding, Y.L., Ingman, T., Salo, T., Westerlund, U., Haapasalo, M., Tschesche, H., Konttinen, Y.T. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha release from THP-1 monocytes in response to metal ions. Wataha, J.C., Ratanasathien, S., Hanks, C.T., Sun, Z. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of smoking on clinical parameters and the gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in patients with chronic periodontitis. Erdemir, E.O., Duran, I., Haliloglu, S. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Relationship between fibrinolytic activity and gingival inflammatory reaction in young individuals. Olofsson, A., Lindberg, P., Lanke, J., Matsson, L., Kinnby, B. J. Periodont. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Chlamydia pneumoniae together with collagenase-2 (MMP-8) in periodontal lesions. Mäntylä, P., Stenman, M., Paldanius, M., Saikku, P., Sorsa, T., Meurman, J.H. Oral diseases. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Characteristics and cariogenicity of a fructanase-defective Streptococcus mutants strain. Wexler, D.L., Penders, J.E., Bowen, W.H., Burne, R.A. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Distribution and molecular characterization of Porphyromonas gingivalis carrying a new type of fimA gene. Nakagawa, I., Amano, A., Kimura, R.K., Nakamura, T., Kawabata, S., Hamada, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. The effect of hexetidine spray on dental plaque following periodontal surgery. Bokor, M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Fluoride concentration in plaque adjacent to orthodontic appliances retained with glass ionomer cement. Hallgren, A., Oliveby, A., Twetman, S. Caries Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction for detecting the urease C gene of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy samples and dental plaque. Bickley, J., Owen, R.J., Fraser, A.G., Pounder, R.E. J. Med. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Developing an instrument to support oral care in the elderly. Sumi, Y., Nakajima, K., Tamura, T., Nagaya, M., Michiwaki, Y. Gerodontology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Prevalence of dental caries in an adult population with mental disabilities in Spain. Rodríguez Vázquez, C., Garcillan, R., Rioboo, R., Bratos, E. Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities