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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, vpr

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Disease relevance of Genes, vpr

  • The tomato disease resistance (R) gene Pto specifies race-specific resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato carrying the avrPto gene [1].
  • The N gene for resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a member of the Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR class of plant disease resistance (R) genes that recognizes the helicase domain from the TMV replicase [2].
  • We investigated the DNA of 29 unrelated pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency (PKD) patients from Central Europe with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia for mutations in the PK-L/R gene [3].
  • Besides, the treatment of Fc gamma RII(-) thymoma cells BW5147 with 5-azacytidine induced a hypomethylation of the beta Fc gamma R gene concomitantly with the transcription of that gene as seen by Northern blotting and the expression of functional Fc gamma RII [4].
  • SLH1 is identical to the R gene RRS1-R of the Arabidopsis ecotype Nd-1, a gene which confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 and also functions as an R gene to this pathogen in No-0 [5].

High impact information on Genes, vpr

  • Barley Rar1 is a convergence point in the signaling of resistance to powdery mildew, triggered by multiple race-specific resistance (R) genes [6].
  • We recently discovered that an inactivating point mutation in the FSH receptor (R) gene causes a recessively inherited form of hypergonadotropic ovarian failure in homozygous females [7].
  • The maize C1 gene, which also encodes a Myb homolog, activates both the A1 and Bz1 genes, but only in the presence of a basic-helix-loop-helix coactivator encoded by the maize genes R or B [8].
  • In mice there are four R genes (encoding RI alpha, RI beta, RII alpha, and RII beta) and two C gene (encoding C alpha and C beta), expressed in tissue-specific patterns [9].
  • Lending support to this idea, the solvent-exposed amino acid residues of leucine-rich repeats, a region of R-genes involved in recognizing pathogens, often evolve at unusually fast rates [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, vpr


Biological context of Genes, vpr


Anatomical context of Genes, vpr

  • The R gene product, a transglycosylase, is released through the pore to the periplasm, resulting in destruction of the peptidoglycan and bursting of the cell [18].
  • Differential effects of interferon-gamma and glucocorticoids on Fc gamma R gene expression in murine macrophages [19].
  • In perspective, viral PDGF beta R gene transfer to keratinocytes may be a useful approach in studies of receptor tyrosine kinase mediated skin repair and epithelialization [20].
  • The timing of lysis depends upon gene t and upon one or more rapid-lysis (r) genes whose inactivation prevents lysis inhibition. t encodes a holin that mediates the movement of the T4 endolysin though the inner cell membrane to its target, the cell wall [21].
  • Regulated transcription of the maize Bronze-2 promoter in electroporated protoplasts requires the C1 and R gene products [22].

Associations of Genes, vpr with chemical compounds

  • Although the predicted RPW8.1 and RPW8.2 proteins are different from the previously characterized R proteins, they induce localized, salicylic acid-dependent defenses similar to those induced by R genes that control specific resistance [23].
  • The rps5-1 mutation causes a glutamate-to-lysine substitution in the third LRR and partially compromises the function of several R genes that confer bacterial and downy mildew resistance [24].
  • In ethyl methanesulfonate-treated cells, the beta Fc gamma R gene was remethylated and the corresponding transcript was no more detectable [4].
  • Both alpha Fc gamma R gene transcripts and corresponding protein products became detectable in 5-azacytidine-treated cells [25].
  • The 'S' and 'R' genes are identical in nucleotide sequence except for an A to G transition, predicting a Ser to Gly change at codon 264 [26].

Gene context of Genes, vpr

  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, mediated by several R gene products, requires the NDR1 gene [27].
  • Despite this function, RPM1 encodes a protein sharing molecular features with recently described single-specificity R genes [28].
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, EDS1 is indispensable for the function of these R genes [29].
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the present study support the hypothesis that there is an association between the TNFRII 196 M/R gene polymorphism and the functional severity of early RA [30].
  • The characterization of RPS4 presented here thus establishes a role for TIR-NBS-LRR R genes in resistance to bacterial pathogens, and provides evidence for the model that dependence of R genes on EDS1 is determined by R protein structure, and not by pathogen type [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, vpr


  1. Overexpression of Pto activates defense responses and confers broad resistance. Tang, X., Xie, M., Kim, Y.J., Zhou, J., Klessig, D.F., Martin, G.B. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Elicitor-mediated oligomerization of the tobacco N disease resistance protein. Mestre, P., Baulcombe, D.C. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular analysis of 29 pyruvate kinase-deficient patients from central Europe with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Lenzner, C., Nürnberg, P., Jacobasch, G., Gerth, C., Thiele, B.J. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Methylation in the 5' region of the murine beta Fc gamma R gene regulates the expression of Fc gamma receptor II. Bonnerot, C., Daëron, M., Varin, N., Amigorena, S., Hogarth, P.M., Even, J., Fridman, W.H. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. A single amino acid insertion in the WRKY domain of the Arabidopsis TIR-NBS-LRR-WRKY-type disease resistance protein SLH1 (sensitive to low humidity 1) causes activation of defense responses and hypersensitive cell death. Noutoshi, Y., Ito, T., Seki, M., Nakashita, H., Yoshida, S., Marco, Y., Shirasu, K., Shinozaki, K. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel class of eukaryotic zinc-binding proteins is required for disease resistance signaling in barley and development in C. elegans. Shirasu, K., Lahaye, T., Tan, M.W., Zhou, F., Azevedo, C., Schulze-Lefert, P. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Men homozygous for an inactivating mutation of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor gene present variable suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility. Tapanainen, J.S., Aittomäki, K., Min, J., Vaskivuo, T., Huhtaniemi, I.T. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The myb-homologous P gene controls phlobaphene pigmentation in maize floral organs by directly activating a flavonoid biosynthetic gene subset. Grotewold, E., Drummond, B.J., Bowen, B., Peterson, T. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetically lean mice result from targeted disruption of the RII beta subunit of protein kinase A. Cummings, D.E., Brandon, E.P., Planas, J.V., Motamed, K., Idzerda, R.L., McKnight, G.S. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Evolutionary dynamics of plant R-genes. Bergelson, J., Kreitman, M., Stahl, E.A., Tian, D. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Convergent evolution of disease resistance gene specificity in two flowering plant families. Ashfield, T., Ong, L.E., Nobuta, K., Schneider, C.M., Innes, R.W. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A large decrease in heat-shock-induced proteolysis after tryptophan starvation leads to increased expression of phage lambda lysozyme cloned in Escherichia coli. Soumillion, P., Fastrez, J. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. RAR1 and NDR1 contribute quantitatively to disease resistance in Arabidopsis, and their relative contributions are dependent on the R gene assayed. Tornero, P., Merritt, P., Sadanandom, A., Shirasu, K., Innes, R.W., Dangl, J.L. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. RPS4-mediated disease resistance requires the combined presence of RPS4 transcripts with full-length and truncated open reading frames. Zhang, X.C., Gassmann, W. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. A gain-of-function mutation in a plant disease resistance gene leads to constitutive activation of downstream signal transduction pathways in suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1. Zhang, Y., Goritschnig, S., Dong, X., Li, X. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid reorganization of resistance gene homologues in cereal genomes. Leister, D., Kurth, J., Laurie, D.A., Yano, M., Sasaki, T., Devos, K., Graner, A., Schulze-Lefert, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell-type-specific expression of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor: a role for GATA-binding protein. Wang, C., Song, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. The lethal lambda S gene encodes its own inhibitor. Bläsi, U., Chang, C.Y., Zagotta, M.T., Nam, K.B., Young, R. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential effects of interferon-gamma and glucocorticoids on Fc gamma R gene expression in murine macrophages. Sivo, J., Politis, A.D., Vogel, S.N. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) responsive epidermis formed from human keratinocytes transduced with the PDGF beta receptor gene. Rollman, O., Jensen, U.B., Ostman, A., Bolund, L., Gústafsdóttir, S.M., Jensen, T.G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Lysis and lysis inhibition in bacteriophage T4: rV mutations reside in the holin t gene. Dressman, H.K., Drake, J.W. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulated transcription of the maize Bronze-2 promoter in electroporated protoplasts requires the C1 and R gene products. Bodeau, J.P., Walbot, V. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Broad-spectrum mildew resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana mediated by RPW8. Xiao, S., Ellwood, S., Calis, O., Patrick, E., Li, T., Coleman, M., Turner, J.G. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. A mutation within the leucine-rich repeat domain of the Arabidopsis disease resistance gene RPS5 partially suppresses multiple bacterial and downy mildew resistance genes. Warren, R.F., Henk, A., Mowery, P., Holub, E., Innes, R.W. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Unmethylation of specific sites in the 5' region is critical for the expression of murine alpha Fc gamma R gene. Bonnerot, C., Amigorena, S., Fridman, W.H., Even, J., Daëron, M. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Chloroplast-coded atrazine resistance in Solanum nigrum: psbA loci from susceptible and resistant biotypes are isogenic except for a single codon change. Goloubinoff, P., Edelman, M., Hallick, R.B. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. NDR1, a pathogen-induced component required for Arabidopsis disease resistance. Century, K.S., Shapiro, A.D., Repetti, P.P., Dahlbeck, D., Holub, E., Staskawicz, B.J. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Structure of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene enabling dual specificity disease resistance. Grant, M.R., Godiard, L., Straube, E., Ashfield, T., Lewald, J., Sattler, A., Innes, R.W., Dangl, J.L. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. EDS1, an essential component of R gene-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis has homology to eukaryotic lipases. Falk, A., Feys, B.J., Frost, L.N., Jones, J.D., Daniels, M.J., Parker, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Tumor necrosis factor receptor II gene polymorphism and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Constantin, A., Dieudé, P., Lauwers-Cancès, V., Jamard, B., Mazières, B., Cambon-Thomsen, A., Cornélis, F., Cantagrel, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. The Arabidopsis RPS4 bacterial-resistance gene is a member of the TIR-NBS-LRR family of disease-resistance genes. Gassmann, W., Hinsch, M.E., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Organ-specificity in a plant disease is determined independently of R gene signaling. Hermanns, M., Slusarenko, A.J., Schlaich, N.L. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Regulation of choline kinase R: analyses of alternatively spliced choline kinases and the promoter region. Uchida, T. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
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