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Gene Review

replicase  -  189 kDa replicase

Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus

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Disease relevance of replicase


High impact information on replicase


Biological context of replicase

  • The rescued phenotypes of the progeny viruses showed that the replicase and MP recovery mutant (ToMV-K(rase-mp)) induced severe symptoms on both systemic and necrotic plants similar to those induced by the virulent strain [1].
  • The amino acid sequences of the shorter and longer (read through) RNA replicase components, movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) were 58, 58 [9].
  • We have shown that virus-encoded replicase components of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)(130K/180K proteins) could complement a replication-defective mutant (LDR28) for viral replication in trans [Ogawa et al. Virology 185, 580-584 (1991)] [10].
  • The 1.4-kbp insertion in the replicase open reading frame (ORF) of the resistant plants was shown by DNA sequencing to be an IS10-like transposable element, which apparently inserted itself into the TMV sequence at nucleotide 2875 sometime during the propagation of this replicase ORF plasmid (pREP21) [11].
  • Inserts of selected cDNA clones were sequenced to obtain the nucleotide sequence of the 126 K replicase component [12].

Anatomical context of replicase

  • UR-hel, a chimeric virus obtained by replacement of the RNA helicase domain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-U1 replicase with that from the TMV-R strain, could replicate similarly to TMV-U1 in protoplasts but could not move from cell to cell (K. Hirashima and Y. Watanabe, J. Virol. 75:8831-8836, 2001) [4].
  • Selected B-cell epitopes were either inserted into the surface loop region of the TMV coat protein or fused to the C terminus using the leaky stop signal derived from the replicase protein reading frame [13].

Associations of replicase with chemical compounds

  • All genomes had a statistically significant bias for G at every third (or 3n) position, resulting in a preponderance of GNN codons and hence a high Val, Ala, Gly, Asp, Glu content, at least in the large (126/183 kDa) and amino-coterminal replicase protein genes [14].


  1. Nonsense mutations of replicase and movement protein genes contribute to the attenuation of an avirulent tomato mosaic virus. Yang, G., Qiu, B.S., Liu, X.G., Li, Y., Wang, X.F. Virus Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Changing patterns of localization of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection. Heinlein, M., Padgett, H.S., Gens, J.S., Pickard, B.G., Casper, S.J., Epel, B.L., Beachy, R.N. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Viral RNA trafficking is inhibited in replicase-mediated resistant transgenic tobacco plants. Nguyen, L., Lucas, W.J., Ding, B., Zaitlin, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. RNA helicase domain of tobamovirus replicase executes cell-to-cell movement possibly through collaboration with its nonconserved region. Hirashima, K., Watanabe, Y. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Protection against tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic plants that express tobacco mosaic virus antisense RNA. Powell, P.A., Stark, D.M., Sanders, P.R., Beachy, R.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro mutagenesis of the putative replicase genes of tobacco mosaic virus. Ishikawa, M., Meshi, T., Motoyoshi, F., Takamatsu, N., Okada, Y. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Tomato mosaic virus replication protein suppresses virus-targeted posttranscriptional gene silencing. Kubota, K., Tsuda, S., Tamai, A., Meshi, T. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Oligomerization and activity of the helicase domain of the tobacco mosaic virus 126- and 183-kilodalton replicase proteins. Goregaoker, S.P., Culver, J.N. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The genome structure of kyuri green mottle mosaic tobamovirus and its comparison with that of cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus. Tan, S.H., Nishiguchi, M., Murata, M., Motoyoshi, F. Arch. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. cis-acting elements for in trans complementation of replication-defective mutant of tobacco mosaic virus. Ogawa, T., Watanabe, Y., Okada, Y. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Broad resistance to tobamoviruses is mediated by a modified tobacco mosaic virus replicase transgene. Donson, J., Kearney, C.M., Turpen, T.H., Khan, I.A., Kurath, G., Turpen, A.M., Jones, G.E., Dawson, W.O., Lewandowski, D.J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Electron microscopic and molecular characterization of turnip vein-clearing virus. Lartey, R.T., Lane, L.C., Melcher, U. Arch. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Malarial epitopes expressed on the surface of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus. Turpen, T.H., Reinl, S.J., Charoenvit, Y., Hoffman, S.L., Fallarme, V., Grill, L.K. Biotechnology (N.Y.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A conserved, precise RNA encapsidation pattern in Tobamovirus particles. Wilson, T.M., McNicol, J.W. Arch. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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