The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Virology

  • HIV-1 viral load, phenotype, and resistance in a subset of drug-naive participants from the Delta trial. The National Virology Groups. Delta Virology Working Group and Coordinating Committee [1].
  • On the basis of these results we suggested that one of the eight genome RNA segments of influenza virus codes for two polypeptides [Lamb, R.A., Etkind, P.R. & Choppin, P.W. (1978) Virology 91, 60-78] [2].
  • The c1 repressor gene of bacteriophage P1 is located on P1 DNA EcoRI fragment 7 (Sternberg, N. (1979) Virology 96, 129-142) [3].
  • Deletion of the vaccinia virus K3L gene, a homologue of the alpha subunit of protein synthesis initiation factor 2, has been reported to reduce the ability of the virus to grow in interferon-treated cells (Beattie, E., Tattaglia, J., and Paoletti, E. (1991) Virology 183, 419-422) [4].
  • The phosphoprotein of measles virus is a modular protein consisting of an intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain (Karlin, D., Longhi, S., Receveur, V., and Canard, B. (2002) Virology 296, 251-262) and of a C-terminal moiety (PCT) composed of alternating disordered and globular regions [5].

High impact information on Virology

  • In this review, Timothy Wells, Christine Power and Amanda Proudfoot discuss the chemokines and their receptors and recent data from immunological and virology studies, and speculate on the potential of interfering with the chemokine network as a useful approach to ameliorating disease [6].
  • In an earlier study, changes in hexose uptake were found to occur 8-12 hr after the shift [Horn, J. P., Wood, T. G., Blair, D. G. & Arlinghaus, R. B. (1980) Virology 105, 516-525] [7].
  • We have recently identified in cells transformed by Ki-MSV or Ha-MSV, a phosphoprotein, p21, coded for by Ki-MSV and Ha-MSV [Shih, T.Y., Weeks, M.O., Young, H.A. & Scolnick, E.M. (1979) Virology 95, in press] [8].
  • We previously described the pHaMSV vector, which includes the human MDR1 gene as a selectable marker and chemoprotective gene, plus an internal SV40 promoter for expressing a second heterologous gene along with MDR1 [M. E. Metz, D. M. Best, and S. E. Kane. Virology, 208: 634-643, 1995] [9].
  • For a long time, the family of type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) has received little attention outside the fields of virology and tumor immunology [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Virology

  • Intrachain disulfide bonds between paired cysteines in the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are required for the recognition of discontinuous epitopes by specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (W. Keil and R. R. Wagner, Virology 170:392-407, 1989) [11].
  • The phosphoprotein NS of vesicular stomatitis virus which accumulates within the infected cell cytoplasm is phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine residues (G. M. Clinton and A. S. Huang, Virology 108:510-514, 1981; Hsu et al., J. Virol. 43:104-112, 1982) [12].
  • This result agrees with a previously published report in which it was shown that Sindbis virus maturation in invertebrate cells is inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating a possible requirement for host cell nuclear function (Scheefers-Borchel et al., Virology, 110:292-301, 1981) [13].
  • The viral protein synthesis pattern observed in vaccinia virus-infected cells treated with the drug isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone was strikingly similar to that observed in ts22-infected cells at the nonpermissive temperature (J. Cooper, B. Moss, and E. Katz, Virology 96:381-392, 1979) [14].
  • Recently, we identified and characterized BMY-27709 as an inhibitor of the H1 and H2 subtypes of influenza A virus that specifically inhibits the HA function necessary for virus-cell membrane fusion (G.-X. Luo, R. Colonno, and M. Krystal, Virology 226:66-76, 1996) [15].

Biological context of Virology

  • The RING domain of p28 has been shown to be a critical determinant of viral virulence for the ectromelia virus (mousepox virus) in a murine infection model (Senkevich, T. G., Koonin, E. V., and Buller, R. M. (1994) Virology 198, 118-128) [16].
  • Coliphage N4 replication is independent of most host DNA replication functions except for the 5'----3' exonuclease activity of polA, DNA ligase, DNA gyrase, and ribonucleotide reductase (Guinta, D., Stambouly, J., Falco, S. C., Rist, J. K., and Rothman-Denes, L. B. (1986) Virology 150, 33-44) [17].
  • Previous work showed that integrated proviruses of both mutants are missing DNA sequences in pol: one mutant, PH9 (Mason et al., J. Virol. 30:132-140, 1979), contains a deletion near the 3' end of pol, whereas the other, SE52d (linial et al., Virology 87:130-141, 1978), may have inserted a host cell sequence near the 5' end of pol [18].
  • The consensus sequence was deduced from the complete sequences of pTRSB and HRsp (E. G. Strauss, C. M. Rice, and J. H. Strauss, Virology 133:92-110, 1984), from partial sequences of the glycoprotein genes of three other AR339 laboratory strains, and by comparison with the sequences of the glycoprotein genes of three other AR339 sequence [19].
  • The UL1 gene has previously been implicated in virus-induced cell fusion (S. Little and P. A. Schaffer, Virology 112:686-697, 1981) [20].

Anatomical context of Virology


Associations of Virology with chemical compounds

  • Recently, we identified EHV4 glycoprotein G (gG) and characterized it as a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein (B. S. Crabb, H. S. Nagesha, and M. J. Studdert, Virology 190:143-154, 1992) [26].
  • We have detected a serine protein kinase activity which is closely associated with p37mos in immune complexes obtained with antibodies [anti-mos(37-55) serum] that were generated with a peptide containing amino acids 37 through 55 of the v-mos protein (S. A. Maxwell and R. B. Arlinghaus, Virology 143:321-333, 1985) [27].
  • (Virology 279:78-89, 2001) proposed that Ad37 uses a 50-kDa protein as a receptor on Chang C conjunctival cells and that this interaction is independent of sialic acid [28].
  • There is evidence that the amino-terminal region of gp55 forms a dualtropic-specific domain that is connected to the remainder of the glycoprotein by a proline-rich linker (C. Machida, R. Bestwick, B. Boswell, and D. Kabat, Virology 144:158-172, 1985) [29].
  • High concentrations of various monosaccharides and lactose had no effect on reovirus attachment, in agreement with the recent results of Armstrong and his collaborators (Armstrong et al., Virology, 138:37-48, 1984) [30].

Gene context of Virology

  • Genetic characterization of SHIVKU-1 showed that it has a functional vpu gene (the first codon is ATG vs ACG for the vpu of SHIV-4) and several amino acid substitutions in Env and nef [Stephens et al. (1997) Virology 231, 313-321] [31].
  • We show that the defect associated with attenuation in strain Bartha is located in a 3.8-kb subfragment of BamHI-4 which encompasses the PrV UL20 and UL21 genes and a putative origin of replication (B. Klupp, H. Kern, and T. C. Mettenleiter, 1992, Virology 191, 900-908) [32].
  • The tL2 termination site, which was placed by Salstrom and Szybalski (Virology 88, 252-260, 1978) between lambda genes bet and ral, was found to consist of a cluster of four leftward terminators [33].
  • In the accompanying article (Borger et al., 2000, Virology 270, 397-407), we demonstrate that RA resistance in HKc/HPV16 arises despite functional nuclear retinoid receptors and that TGF-beta mediates growth inhibition by RA [34].
  • A coexpression assay previously used to define protein interaction domains in the HIV-1 Rev protein [R. H. Stauber, E. Afonina, S. Gulnik, J. Erickson, and G. N. Pavlakis (1998a). Virology 251, 38-48.] indicated that Tat exists predominantly as a monomer and does not form stable multimers with B23 in living cells [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Virology

  • We have previously described a gene of ectromelia virus (EV) that codes for a 28-kDa RING zinc finger-containing protein (p28) that is nonessential for virus growth in cell culture but is critical for EV pathogenicity in mice (T. G. Senkevich, E. V. Koonin, and R. M. L. Buller, Virology 198:118-128; 1994) [36].
  • Comparison of the ADVIA Centaur and Abbott AxSYM immunoassay systems for a routine diagnostic virology laboratory [37].
  • Red cell and plasma fractions were available for ABO grouping, virology testing and cryopreservation [38].
  • Serotyping of 432 rotavirus positive fecal specimens collected from hospitalized children during 1990-1997 was carried out at National Institute of Virology (NIV), Pune, India, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against VP7 determinant of serotypes G1-G4, G6, G8, and G10 [39].
  • The correlation of a positive or negative PCR result in CSF and/or serum versus combined conventional virology (serology and isolation from 1-3 sites, i.e. CSF, stool and throat) was 78% [40].


  1. HIV-1 viral load, phenotype, and resistance in a subset of drug-naive participants from the Delta trial. The National Virology Groups. Delta Virology Working Group and Coordinating Committee. Brun-Vézinet, F., Boucher, C., Loveday, C., Descamps, D., Fauveau, V., Izopet, J., Jeffries, D., Kaye, S., Krzyanowski, C., Nunn, A., Schuurman, R., Seigneurin, J.M., Tamalet, C., Tedder, R., Weber, J., Weverling, G.J. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Segment 8 of the influenza virus genome is unique in coding for two polypeptides. Lamb, R.A., Choppin, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. The c1 repressor of bacteriophage P1. Isolation and characterization of the repressor protein. Dreiseikelmann, B., Velleman, M., Schuster, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Recombinant vaccinia virus K3L gene product prevents activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent, initiation factor 2 alpha-specific protein kinase. Carroll, K., Elroy-Stein, O., Moss, B., Jagus, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Crystal structure of the measles virus phosphoprotein domain responsible for the induced folding of the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein. Johansson, K., Bourhis, J.M., Campanacci, V., Cambillau, C., Canard, B., Longhi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Definition, function and pathophysiological significance of chemokine receptors. Wells, T.N., Power, C.A., Proudfoot, A.E. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequence of events in the transformation process in cells infected with a temperature-sensitive transformation mutant of Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Brown, R.L., Horn, J.P., Wible, L., Arlinghaus, R.B., Brinkley, B.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Different rat-derived transforming retroviruses code for an immunologically related intracellular phosphoprotein. Young, H.A., Shih, T.Y., Scolnick, E.M., Rasheed, S., Gardner, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Transduction of NIH 3T3 cells with a retrovirus carrying both human MDR1 and glutathione S-transferase pi produces broad-range multidrug resistance. Doroshow, J.H., Metz, M.Z., Matsumoto, L., Winters, K.A., Sakai, M., Muramatsu, M., Kane, S.E. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of type I interferons in non-viral infections. Bogdan, C., Mattner, J., Schleicher, U. Immunol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Disulfide-bonded discontinuous epitopes on the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype). Grigera, P.R., Keil, W., Wagner, R.R. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Phosphorylation sites on phosphoprotein NS of vesicular stomatitis virus. Bell, J.C., Prevec, L. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Requirement of cell nucleus for Sindbis virus replication in cultured Aedes albopictus cells. Erwin, C., Brown, D.T. J. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of vaccinia virus reveals a novel function that prevents virus-induced breakdown of RNA. Pacha, R.F., Condit, R.C. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular mechanism underlying the action of a novel fusion inhibitor of influenza A virus. Luo, G., Torri, A., Harte, W.E., Danetz, S., Cianci, C., Tiley, L., Day, S., Mullaney, D., Yu, K.L., Ouellet, C., Dextraze, P., Meanwell, N., Colonno, R., Krystal, M. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The poxvirus p28 virulence factor is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Huang, J., Huang, Q., Zhou, X., Shen, M.M., Yen, A., Yu, S.X., Dong, G., Qu, K., Huang, P., Anderson, E.M., Daniel-Issakani, S., Buller, R.M., Payan, D.G., Lu, H.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification and characterization of bacteriophage N4-induced DNA polymerase. Lindberg, G.K., Rist, J.K., Kunkel, T.A., Sugino, A., Rothman-Denes, L.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Synthesis and processing of polymerase proteins of wild-type and mutant avian retroviruses. Eisenman, R.N., Mason, W.S., Linial, M. J. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Deduced consensus sequence of Sindbis virus strain AR339: mutations contained in laboratory strains which affect cell culture and in vivo phenotypes. McKnight, K.L., Simpson, D.A., Lin, S.C., Knott, T.A., Polo, J.M., Pence, D.F., Johannsen, D.B., Heidner, H.W., Davis, N.L., Johnston, R.E. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel herpes simplex virus glycoprotein, gL, forms a complex with glycoprotein H (gH) and affects normal folding and surface expression of gH. Hutchinson, L., Browne, H., Wargent, V., Davis-Poynter, N., Primorac, S., Goldsmith, K., Minson, A.C., Johnson, D.C. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. A novel mechanism of CD4 lymphocyte depletion involves effects of HIV on resting lymphocytes: induction of lymph node homing and apoptosis upon secondary signaling through homing receptors. Wang, L., Chen, J.J., Gelman, B.B., Konig, R., Cloyd, M.W. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Glycosaminoglycan sulfation requirements for respiratory syncytial virus infection. Hallak, L.K., Spillmann, D., Collins, P.L., Peeples, M.E. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Human isolates of dengue type 1 virus induce apoptosis in mouse neuroblastoma cells. Desprès, P., Flamand, M., Ceccaldi, P.E., Deubel, V. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Restoration of interferon responses of adenovirus E1A-expressing HT1080 cell lines by overexpression of p48 protein. Leonard, G.T., Sen, G.C. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. The role of leucine residues in the structure and function of a leucine zipper peptide inhibitor of paramyxovirus (NDV) fusion. Young, J.K., Hicks, R.P., Wright, G.E., Morrison, T.G. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Epitopes of glycoprotein G of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 located near the C termini elicit type-specific antibody responses in the natural host. Crabb, B.S., Studdert, M.J. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Use of site-specific antipeptide antibodies to perturb the serine kinase catalytic activity of p37mos. Maxwell, S.A., Arlinghaus, R.B. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Adenovirus type 37 uses sialic acid as a cellular receptor on Chang C cells. Arnberg, N., Pring-Akerblom, P., Wadell, G. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The membrane glycoprotein of Friend spleen focus-forming virus: evidence that the cell surface component is required for pathogenesis and that it binds to a receptor. Li, J.P., Bestwick, R.K., Spiro, C., Kabat, D. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of neuraminidase treatment of cells and effect of soluble glycoproteins on type 3 reovirus attachment to murine L cells. Gentsch, J.R., Pacitti, A.F. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Chronology of genetic changes in the vpu, env, and Nef genes of chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (strain HXB2) during acquisition of virulence for pig-tailed macaques. McCormick-Davis, C., Zhao, L.J., Mukherjee, S., Leung, K., Sheffer, D., Joag, S.V., Narayan, O., Stephens, E.B. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Mutations affecting the UL21 gene contribute to avirulence of pseudorabies virus vaccine strain Bartha. Klupp, B.G., Lomniczi, B., Visser, N., Fuchs, W., Mettenleiter, T.C. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. The tL2 cluster of transcription termination sites between genes bet and ral of coliphage lambda. Luk, K.C., Szybalski, W. Virology (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Loss of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor type I mediates TGF-beta resistance in human papillomavirus type 16-transformed human keratinocytes at late stages of in vitro progression. Mi, Y., Borger, D.R., Fernandes, P.R., Pirisi, L., Creek, K.E. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Intracellular trafficking and interactions of the HIV-1 Tat protein. Stauber, R.H., Pavlakis, G.N. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Ectromelia virus RING finger protein is localized in virus factories and is required for virus replication in macrophages. Senkevich, T.G., Wolffe, E.J., Buller, R.M. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Comparison of the ADVIA Centaur and Abbott AxSYM immunoassay systems for a routine diagnostic virology laboratory. Taylor, P., Pickard, G., Gammie, A., Atkins, M. J. Clin. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Umbilical cord blood collection and separation for haematopoietic progenitor cell banking. Ademokun, J.A., Chapman, C., Dunn, J., Lander, D., Mair, K., Proctor, S.J., Dickinson, A.M. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Evidence of rotavirus AU32 like G9 strains from nontypeable fecal specimens of Indian children hospitalized during 1993-1994. Awachat, P.S., Kelkar, S.D. J. Med. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. PCR for the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis. Thorén, A., Widell, A. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities