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MeSH Review

Heart Massage

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Disease relevance of Heart Massage


High impact information on Heart Massage

  • After 6 mins, the animals were resuscitated by external cardiac massage combined with defibrillation and divided into two groups (BDNF vs. placebo) [5].
  • After 6 min, animals were resuscitated by controlled ventilation, extrathoracic cardiac massage, epinephrine, and electrical countershocks [6].
  • Compared with controls at 30 mins after initiation of cardiac massage, concentrations of C3a, SC5b-9, and PMN elastase were increased in patients without and in those with restoration of spontaneous circulation [7].
  • Resuscitation was attempted with artificial ventilation, closed chest cardiac massage, and one of four iv drug protocols: dopamine, 40 mg; epinephrine, 1 mg; dobutamine, 50 mg; or no drug [8].
  • In group 3 (n = 6), heparin sodium (1000 U/kg) was administered intravenously 10 minutes after death, then closed-chest cardiac massage was performed for 2 minutes [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Heart Massage


Anatomical context of Heart Massage


Associations of Heart Massage with chemical compounds

  • After this treatment and 5 min of asphyxial arrest, all animals received closed chest cardiac massage (CCCM), artificial ventilation (AR), and epinephrine, 1 mg, iv [12].
  • The patient was treated with cardiac massage, sympathomimetics and cortisone, and made a complete recovery [13].
  • The dogs were randomized to receive either 20 mg of methoxamine as a single intravenous bolus or repeated boluses of 0.02 mg/kg of epinephrine, 0.2 mg/kg of epinephrine, or normal saline solution placebo beginning at three minutes following induction of VF and initiation of closed chest cardiac massage (CCCM) [14].
  • Treatment consisted of i.v. atropine in 16 cases, and in four cases external cardiac massage or a precordial thump was also given [15].
  • Our results indicate that the absorption of tracheal lidocaine during natural circulation results in a cerebrum-to-cerebrospinal fluid lidocaine ratio of 1.2 or more, whereas absorption during artificial circulation by cardiac massage gives a ratio of 1.0 or less [16].

Gene context of Heart Massage

  • Distal migration of vena cava umbrella during cardiac massage [17].
  • In 10 dogs CCCM resulted in the lowest cardiac index (CI), mean arterial pressure (MBP), and carotid blood flow (CBF) of all cardiac massage techniques tested [18].
  • (Kouwenhoven W, Jude JR, Knickerbocker GG. Closed-chest cardiac massage. JAMA. 1960; 173:1064-7) [19].
  • Open, direct cardiac massage (OCM), as a technique of resuscitation has not been very inspiring due to its various limitations [20].


  1. Effects of the potassium channel blocking agent ambasilide on ventricular arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial ischemia and sympathetic activation. Stramba-Badiale, M., Pessano, P., Kirchengast, M., Schwartz, P.J. Am. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption during open-chest CPR. Lindner, K.H., Ahnefeld, F.W., Pfenninger, E.G., Schuermann, W., Bowdler, I.M. Annals of emergency medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Successful cardiovascular resuscitation after massive intravenous bupivacaine overdosage in anesthetized dogs. Kasten, G.W., Martin, S.T. Anesth. Analg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Heparin removal after cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with adverse reaction to protamine. Tevaearai, H.T., Jegger, D., Mueller, X.M., Horisberger, J., von Segesser, L.K. The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of intracerebroventricular application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on cerebral recovery after cardiac arrest in rats. Popp, E., Padosch, S.A., Vogel, P., Schäbitz, W.R., Schwab, S., Böttiger, B.W. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Improved resuscitation after cardiac arrest in rats expressing the baculovirus caspase inhibitor protein p35 in central neurons. Vogel, P., Putten, H., Popp, E., Krumnikl, J.J., Teschendorf, P., Galmbacher, R., Kisielow, M., Wiessner, C., Schmitz, A., Tomaselli, K.J., Schmitz, B., Martin, E., Böttiger, B.W. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Marked activation of complement and leukocytes and an increase in the concentrations of soluble endothelial adhesion molecules during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early reperfusion after cardiac arrest in humans. Böttiger, B.W., Motsch, J., Braun, V., Martin, E., Kirschfink, M. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparison of dopamine, dobutamine, and epinephrine in CPR. Otto, C.W., Yakaitis, R.W., Redding, J.S., Blitt, C.D. Crit. Care Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of postmortem heparinization in canine lung transplantation with non-heart-beating donors. Inokawa, H., Date, H., Okazaki, M., Okutani, D., Aokage, K., Nagahiro, I., Aoe, M., Sano, Y., Shimizu, N. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of resuscitation of sheep and dogs after bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular collapse. Kasten, G.W., Martin, S.T. Anesth. Analg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Distal propulsion of vena cava umbrella by cardiac massage. Ray, J.F., Myers, W.O., Wenzel, F.J., Strauss, G.S., Sautter, R.D. Chest (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanism of action of epinephrine in resuscitation from asphyxial arrest. Otto, C.W., Yakaitis, R.W., Blitt, C.D. Crit. Care Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Pancuronium allergy: a case report. Patriarca, G., Nucera, E., Schiavino, D., Romano, A., Di Rienzo, V., Pellegrino, S., Fais, G. British journal of anaesthesia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of methoxamine and epinephrine on survival and regional distribution of cardiac output in dogs with prolonged ventricular fibrillation. Roberts, D., Landolfo, K., Dobson, K., Light, R.B. Chest (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Bradycardia and cardiac asystole following a single injection of suxamethonium. Sørensen, M., Engbaek, J., Viby-Mogensen, J., Guldager, H., Molke Jensen, F. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Tissue distribution of lidocaine in critical care patients after intubation. Moriya, F., Hashimoto, Y. Forensic Sci. Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Distal migration of vena cava umbrella during cardiac massage. Warfel, K.A., Binkley, W.F., Winegarner, F.G. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. A study of the techniques of cardiac massage with the abdomen open. Rieder, C.F., Crawford, B.G., Iliopoulos, J.I., Thomas, J.H., Pierce, G.E., Hermreck, A.S. Surgery (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Alternative cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices. O'Connor, R.E., Ornato, J.P., Wigginton, J., Hunt, R.C., Mears, G., Penner, J. Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Open indirect cardiac massage in neonate. Saxena, N., Chaudhary, S. Indian journal of pediatrics. (2005) [Pubmed]
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