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Gene Review

OCM2  -  oncomodulin 2

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of OCM

  • RNA from a rat liver tumor (Morris hepatoma 5123tc) was used to construct cDNAs together comprising the complete coding sequence of rat oncomodulin mRNA [1].
  • Oncomodulin (OM) is a small, acidic calcium-binding protein first discovered in a rat hepatoma and later found in placental cytotrophoblasts, the pre-implantation embryo, and in a wide variety of neoplastic tissues [2].
  • Proliferation, expression of androgen-regulated genes, and transactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) were monitored in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in response to OCM using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Northern blot analysis, and reporter gene constructs [3].
  • In 18 cases (50%) intestinal metaplasia was present in CM/OCM; pancreatic metaplasia was found in 22 cases (61%) [4].
  • In the OAM group, six patients had overgrowth of resistant enterobacteriaceae during treatment compared with none in the OCM group, in the gastric microflora [5].

High impact information on OCM


Chemical compound and disease context of OCM

  • The total anaerobic microflora was strongly suppressed in both treatment groups, although most pronounced in the OCM group, where the frequency of clarithromycin-resistant bacteroides strains increased from 2 to 76% during treatment, and remained at 59% 4 weeks post-treatment [5].
  • METHODS: Three hundred and forty-five patients with current or previously active peptic ulcer and a positive H. pylori urease test were randomly assigned to receive RCA, OCA, RCM or OCM twice daily for 7 days (R, rabeprazole 20 mg; O, omeprazole 20 mg; C, clarithromycin 500 mg; A, amoxicillin 1000 mg; M, metronidazole 400 mg) [9].
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were evaluated by two pathologists for the following histologic details: minimal and maximal length of cardiac mucosa (CM) and oxyntocardiac mucosa (OCM, mixture of cardiac and fundic glands), degree of inflammation in CM and OCM, and presence of intestinal metaplasia or pancreatic metaplasia [4].
  • METHODS: Four melanoma cell lines originally isolated from melanotic tumors (B16F10, RPMI 1846, OCM 1, and IIB) were used to establish choroidal melanomas in 105 rabbits; 88 animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporine [10].

Biological context of OCM

  • Oncomodulin is a parvalbumin-like calcium binding protein of Mr 11,700 from rodent tumours [11].
  • The interaction of these proteins could also be indirectly demonstrated by monitoring glutathione reductase activity since oncomodulin was shown to inhibit the enzyme in a dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of approximately 5 microM [12].
  • The Eu(III) (7)F(0) --> (5)D(0) excitation spectra are pH-dependent, as reported for several EF-hand proteins (oncomodulin, parvalbumin) [13].
  • Our results suggest that the integration of the IAP particle genome within the rat oncomodulin gene occurred after the rat and the mouse became distinct species [14].
  • Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of Methanogenium tationis DSM 2702T (OCM 43T) (T = type strain) and Methanogenium liminatans GKZPZT (= DSM 4140T) as well as other members of the family Methanomicrobiaceae revealed that both species belong to a separate line of descent within this family [15].

Anatomical context of OCM

  • The widely-distributed tumour protein, oncomodulin, is a normal constituent of human and rodent placentas [16].
  • Glutathione reductase (EC isolated from either the bovine intestinal mucosa or the rat liver was bound in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner to oncomodulin which was covalently attached to Sepharose [12].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Primary cultures of human osteoblasts were used as a source of conditioned medium (OCM) [3].
  • Locations of CM/OCM over submucosal esophageal glands or squamous epithelium-lined ducts, both indicating a location in the esophagus, were found in eight cases (22%) and in four cases (11%), respectively [4].
  • Because of the short length and incomplete circumferential extension of CM/OCM, future endoscopic-bioptic investigations will probably have to be based on more extensive sampling of the gastroesophageal junction [4].

Associations of OCM with chemical compounds

  • Oncomodulin, an oncofetal Ca2+-binding protein, contains a single Cys residue in position 18 of its primary structure [17].
  • As in other parvalbumins, the liganding residues in the CD and EF sites of oncomodulin differ at the +z and -x coordination positions: serine and aspartate, respectively, in the CD site; aspartate and glycine in the EF site [18].
  • Synergistic increases in the activities of PSA (6.1 kb)- and pARR(3)-tk-luciferase reporters were measured in cells cotreated with both OCM and androgen [3].
  • Of the strains isolated following treatment failure with OAC, OBC or OCM, 84% were clarithromycin resistant [19].
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that the RCM regimen was more effective than that based on OCM and that the antisecretory drugs affected metronidazole availability, increasing the efficacy of ranitidine-based regimens [20].

Other interactions of OCM

  • OCM targeted the NH(2)-terminal domain of the AR [3].
  • RESULTS: OCM increased the proliferation and expression of PSA at both the protein and RNA levels in LNCaP cells [3].
  • Neutralizing antibodies to IL-6 blocked proliferation and expression of PSA by OCM [3].
  • The pattern of staining for desmin in HCM cats was not the same as that reported in humans, but was weaker than in OCM cats and controls [21].
  • The I: and C: values derived from original data for forward and retro mutations in aspartate and tyrosine aminotransferase, from literature data for quasi domain exchange in oncomodulin and for the interaction of Tat with bovine and human TAR are evaluated [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of OCM


  1. A complete complementary DNA for the oncodevelopmental calcium-binding protein, oncomodulin. Gillen, M.F., Banville, D., Rutledge, R.G., Narang, S., Seligy, V.L., Whitfield, J.F., MacManus, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Oncomodulin is expressed exclusively by outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. Sakaguchi, N., Henzl, M.T., Thalmann, I., Thalmann, R., Schulte, B.A. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Osteoblast-derived factors induce androgen-independent proliferation and expression of prostate-specific antigen in human prostate cancer cells. Blaszczyk, N., Masri, B.A., Mawji, N.R., Ueda, T., McAlinden, G., Duncan, C.P., Bruchovsky, N., Schweikert, H.U., Schnabel, D., Jones, E.C., Sadar, M.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Histopathology of the gastroesophageal junction: a study on 36 operation specimens. Sarbia, M., Donner, A., Gabbert, H.E. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative effects of omeprazole, amoxycillin plus metronidazole versus omeprazole, clarithromycin plus metronidazole on the oral, gastric and intestinal microflora in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. Adamsson, I., Nord, C.E., Lundquist, P., Sjöstedt, S., Edlund, C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Impact of doxorubicin on survival in advanced ovarian cancer. A'Hern, R.P., Gore, M.E. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of terbium (III) luminescence enhancement in mutants of EF hand calcium binding proteins. Hogue, C.W., MacManus, J.P., Banville, D., Szabo, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Eu3+ luminescence studies of oncomodulin. The origin of the pH-dependent behavior. Treviño, C.L., Palmisano, W.A., Birnbaum, E.R., Henzl, M.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Safety and efficacy of 7-day rabeprazole- and omeprazole-based triple therapy regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with documented peptic ulcer disease. Hawkey, C.J., Atherton, J.C., Treichel, H.C., Thjodleifsson, B., Ravic, M. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Establishment of pigmented choroidal melanomas in a rabbit model. Hu, L.K., Huh, K., Gragoudas, E.S., Young, L.H. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. The presence in human tumours of a Mr 11,700 calcium-binding protein similar to rodent oncomodulin. MacManus, J.P., Whitfield, J.F., Stewart, D.J. Cancer Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of glutathione reductase by oncomodulin. Palmer, E.J., MacManus, J.P., Mutus, B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Europium luminescence of EF-hand helix-turn-helix chimeras: impact of pH and DNA-binding on europium coordination. Jain, S., Welch, J.T., Horrocks, W.D., Franklin, S.J. Inorganic chemistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The intracisternal A particle derived solo LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is not present in the mouse gene. Banville, D., Rotaru, M., Boie, Y. Genetica (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Reclassification of Methanogenium tationis and Methanogenium liminatans as Methanofollis tationis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Methanofollis liminatans comb. nov. and description of a new strain of Methanofollis liminatans. Zellner, G., Boone, D.R., Keswani, J., Whitman, W.B., Woese, C.R., Hagelstein, A., Tindall, B.J., Stackebrandt, E. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. The widely-distributed tumour protein, oncomodulin, is a normal constituent of human and rodent placentas. MacManus, J.P., Brewer, L.M., Whitfield, J.F. Cancer Lett. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Disulfide-linked dimer of oncomodulin: comparison to calmodulin. Mutus, B., Palmer, E.J., MacManus, J.P. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Interconversion of the CD and EF sites in oncomodulin. Influence on the Eu3+ 7F0-->5D0 excitation spectrum. Kauffman, J.F., Hapak, R.C., Henzl, M.T. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. A randomized comparison of four omeprazole-based triple therapy regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Laurent, J., Mégraud, F., Fléjou, J.F., Caekaert, A., Barthélemy, P. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Is a long-term ranitidine-based triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori only a heritage of the past? A prospective, randomized clinicopharmacological study. Pellegrini, M., Urso, R., Giorgi, G., Bayeli, P.F., Marzocca, G., Cerretani, D. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Desmin as a possible immunohistochemical marker for feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hayman, R., Une, Y., Nomura, Y. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. A general method for the quantitative analysis of functional chimeras: applications from site-directed mutagenesis and macromolecular association. Luong, T.N., Kirsch, J.F. Protein Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Production of monoclonal antibodies directed against antigenic determinants common to the alpha- and beta-chain of bovine brain S-100 protein. Vanstapel, M.J., Peeters, B., Cordell, J., Heyns, W., De Wolf-Peeters, C., Desmet, V., Mason, D. Lab. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of metal ion-induced conformational changes in parvalbumin and oncomodulin as probed by the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan 102. Hutnik, C.M., MacManus, J.P., Banville, D., Szabo, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. A prospective randomized trial comparing the use of omeprazole-based dual and triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Chu, K.M., Choi, H.K., Tuen, H.H., Law, S.Y., Branicki, F.J., Wong, J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Omeprazole and clarithromycin with and without metronidazole for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Chiba, N. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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