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MeSH Review

Midwestern United States

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Disease relevance of Midwestern United States


High impact information on Midwestern United States


Associations of Midwestern United States with chemical compounds

  • These data, although preliminary, suggest that the prevalence of E. phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks of California may be lower than in cognate vector populations (i.e., I. scapularis Say = I. dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin) in the eastern and midwestern United States [8].
  • Simultaneous occurrence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin in 1982 scabby wheat from the midwestern United States [9].
  • The results suggest that exposure of animals to dietary or environmental lead, cadmium, and mercury in the midwestern United States is not significant [10].
  • Several fatalities from PMA have been reported in Australia, and here we report three recent fatalities that occurred in the midwestern United States in which each of the decedents believed that they were ingesting MDMA [11].
  • Atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the midwestern United States. Speculations have arisen on the potential effects of atrazine contamination to anuran larvae developing in these surface waters [12].

Gene context of Midwestern United States

  • Forty-seven drinking watertreatment plants located primarily in the Midwestern United States participated in the survey and sampled their raw and finished water on a weekly basis from March through October [13].
  • To validate the assays, PCV2 and ORF2 ELISAs were performed with 783 serum samples of young and adult pigs collected from different herds in the Midwestern United States and compared with an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IIF) [14].
  • SETTING: Large metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States. SAMPLE: A sample of eight women was obtained using network sampling [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Midwestern United States

  • A comparative analysis of aerosol samples obtained at a remote mountain location Nathiagali, Pakistan (2.5 km above mean sea level), and Mayville, New York, downwind from the highly industrialized Midwestern United States, was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, and Sb [16].


  1. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of New Reassortant H3N1 Swine Influenza Virus from Pigs in the Midwestern United States. Ma, W., Gramer, M., Rossow, K., Yoon, K.J. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Protection from La Crosse virus encephalitis with recombinant glycoproteins: role of neutralizing anti-G1 antibodies. Pekosz, A., Griot, C., Stillmock, K., Nathanson, N., Gonzalez-Scarano, F. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of the vacA, cagA, cagE, iceA, and babA2 genes in Helicobacter pylori from sixty-one pediatric patients from the Midwestern United States. Podzorski, R.P., Podzorski, D.S., Wuerth, A., Tolia, V. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Carrier rates in the midwestern United States for GJB2 mutations causing inherited deafness. Green, G.E., Scott, D.A., McDonald, J.M., Woodworth, G.G., Sheffield, V.C., Smith, R.J. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Pattern of p53 gene mutations in breast cancers of women of the midwestern United States. Sommer, S.S., Cunningham, J., McGovern, R.M., Saitoh, S., Schroeder, J.J., Wold, L.E., Kovach, J.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Determination of CYP2C19 phenotype in black Americans with omeprazole: correlation with genotype. Marinac, J.S., Balian, J.D., Foxworth, J.W., Willsie, S.K., Daus, J.C., Owen, R., Flockhart, D.A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Components of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum of young children in upper midwestern United States. Arnaud, S.B., Matthusen, M., Gilkinson, J.B., Goldsmith, R.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996. Barlough, J.E., Madigan, J.E., Kramer, V.L., Clover, J.R., Hui, L.T., Webb, J.P., Vredevoe, L.K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Simultaneous occurrence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin in 1982 scabby wheat from the midwestern United States. Hagler, W.M., Tyczkowska, K., Hamilton, P.B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Lead, cadmium, and mercury tissue residues in healthy swine, cattle, dogs, and horses from the midwestern United States. Penumarthy, L., Oehme, F.W., Hayes, R.H. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Fatalities caused by the MDMA-related drug paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA). Kraner, J.C., McCoy, D.J., Evans, M.A., Evans, L.E., Sweeney, B.J. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Developmental impact of atrazine on metamorphing Xenopus laevis as revealed by nuclear analysis and morphology. Freeman, J.L., Rayburn, A.L. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. 2004 National Atrazine Occurrence Monitoring Program using the Abraxis ELISA method. Graziano, N., McGuire, M.J., Roberson, A., Adams, C., Jiang, H., Blute, N. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Modified indirect porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2-based and recombinant capsid protein (ORF2)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to PCV. Nawagitgul, P., Harms, P.A., Morozov, I., Thacker, B.J., Sorden, S.D., Lekcharoensuk, C., Paul, P.S. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The evolving meaning of cancer for long-term survivors of breast cancer. Utley, R. Oncology nursing forum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Microwave assisted digestion of atmospheric aerosol samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of trace elements. Swami, K., Judd, C.D., Orsini, J., Yang, K.X., Husain, L. Fresenius' journal of analytical chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
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