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MeSH Review

Influenza A Virus

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Disease relevance of Influenza A Virus


High impact information on Influenza A Virus

  • Emergence and apparent transmission of rimantadine-resistant influenza A virus in families [6].
  • Rimantadine-resistant strains of influenza A virus (H3N2 subtype) with mutations consisting of single amino acid changes in the M2 protein (residue 27, 30, or 31) were recovered from eight index patients and five contacts treated with rimantadine [6].
  • Ten NH2-terminal residues are conserved in all strains of influenza A virus for which sequences are available [7].
  • We use this approach to investigate the T-helper cell response of 42 asymptomatic HIV-seropositive patients to four synthetic gp160 peptides and to influenza A virus, an antigen requiring intact CD4 T-helper cell function [8].
  • Variation in influenza A viruses was examined by comparison of nucleotide sequences of the NS gene (890 bases) of 15 human viruses isolated over 53 years (1933 to 1985) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Influenza A Virus


Biological context of Influenza A Virus


Anatomical context of Influenza A Virus


Gene context of Influenza A Virus

  • Influenza A virus employs a different strategy: its NS1 protein does not bind the ISG15 protein, but little or no ISG15 protein is produced during infection [25].
  • A protein analogous to NB has not been found with influenza A virus, and this represents a major difference between the two virus types [26].
  • Infection by influenza A virus has previously been shown to prime macrophages for a high TNF-alpha production [27].
  • Influenza A virus infection also induced a double band of IL-1 beta and IL-6 mRNA [27].
  • Expression of TLR3 was positively regulated by the influenza A virus and by dsRNA but not by other inflammatory mediators, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide, the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Influenza A Virus


  1. Rapid interferon gamma-dependent clearance of influenza A virus and protection from consolidating pneumonitis in nitric oxide synthase 2-deficient mice. Karupiah, G., Chen, J.H., Mahalingam, S., Nathan, C.F., MacMicking, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors. Gubareva, L.V., Kaiser, L., Hayden, F.G. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. An influenza A virus containing influenza B virus 5' and 3' noncoding regions on the neuraminidase gene is attenuated in mice. Muster, T., Subbarao, E.K., Enami, M., Murphy, B.R., Palese, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Virus-specific immunity after gene therapy in a murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency. Bunting, K.D., Flynn, K.J., Riberdy, J.M., Doherty, P.C., Sorrentino, B.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of priming polymorphonuclear leukocytes with cytokines (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] and G-CSF) on the host resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae in chinchillas infected with influenza A virus. Abramson, J.S., Hudnor, H.R. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Emergence and apparent transmission of rimantadine-resistant influenza A virus in families. Hayden, F.G., Belshe, R.B., Clover, R.D., Hay, A.J., Oakes, M.G., Soo, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Influenza virus M2 protein is an integral membrane protein expressed on the infected-cell surface. Lamb, R.A., Zebedee, S.L., Richardson, C.D. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Interleukin-2 production used to detect antigenic peptide recognition by T-helper lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals. Clerici, M., Stocks, N.I., Zajac, R.A., Boswell, R.N., Bernstein, D.C., Mann, D.L., Shearer, G.M., Berzofsky, J.A. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Evolution of human influenza A viruses over 50 years: rapid, uniform rate of change in NS gene. Buonagurio, D.A., Nakada, S., Parvin, J.D., Krystal, M., Palese, P., Fitch, W.M. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin for influenza A viruses. Hartshorn, K.L., Sastry, K., White, M.R., Anders, E.M., Super, M., Ezekowitz, R.A., Tauber, A.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. The influenza virus hemagglutinin cytoplasmic tail is not essential for virus assembly or infectivity. Jin, H., Leser, G.P., Lamb, R.A. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against the viral RNA polymerase gene enhance survival of mice infected with influenza A. Mizuta, T., Fujiwara, M., Hatta, T., Abe, T., Miyano-Kurosaki, N., Shigeta, S., Yokota, T., Takaku, H. Nat. Biotechnol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Protective efficacy of combined live intranasal and inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in the elderly. Treanor, J.J., Mattison, H.R., Dumyati, G., Yinnon, A., Erb, S., O'Brien, D., Dolin, R., Betts, R.F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Evolution to predominance of swine influenza virus hemagglutinin mutants of predictable phenotype during single infections of the natural host. Kilbourne, E.D., Easterday, B.C., McGregor, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Influenza virus NS1 protein interacts with the cellular 30 kDa subunit of CPSF and inhibits 3'end formation of cellular pre-mRNAs. Nemeroff, M.E., Barabino, S.M., Li, Y., Keller, W., Krug, R.M. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype. Doherty, P.C., Biddison, W.E., Bennink, J.R., Knowles, B.B. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Crystal structure of the M1 protein-binding domain of the influenza A virus nuclear export protein (NEP/NS2). Akarsu, H., Burmeister, W.P., Petosa, C., Petit, I., Müller, C.W., Ruigrok, R.W., Baudin, F. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Efficient expression of influenza virus NS1 nonstructural proteins in Escherichia coli. Young, J.F., Desselberger, U., Palese, P., Ferguson, B., Shatzman, A.R., Rosenberg, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Human influenza viruses activate an interferon-independent transcription of cellular antiviral genes: outcome with influenza A virus is unique. Kim, M.J., Latham, A.G., Krug, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Most influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes react with antigenic epitopes associated with internal virus determinants. Kees, U., Krammer, P.H. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of neutrophil lysosome-phagosome fusion associated with influenza virus infection in vitro. Role in depressed bactericidal activity. Abramson, J.S., Lewis, J.C., Lyles, D.S., Heller, K.A., Mills, E.L., Bass, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. T cell-dependent production of IFN-gamma by NK cells in response to influenza A virus. He, X.S., Draghi, M., Mahmood, K., Holmes, T.H., Kemble, G.W., Dekker, C.L., Arvin, A.M., Parham, P., Greenberg, H.B. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Influenza A virus infection of macrophages. Enhanced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression and lipopolysaccharide-triggered TNF-alpha release. Gong, J.H., Sprenger, H., Hinder, F., Bender, A., Schmidt, A., Horch, S., Nain, M., Gemsa, D. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Antigen-specific human T lymphocyte clones: induction, antigen specificity, and MHC restriction of influenza virus-immune clones. Lamb, J.R., Eckels, D.D., Lake, P., Johnson, A.H., Hartzman, R.J., Woody, J.N. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein. Yuan, W., Krug, R.M. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. A previously unrecognized influenza B virus glycoprotein from a bicistronic mRNA that also encodes the viral neuraminidase. Shaw, M.W., Choppin, P.W., Lamb, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of a high molecular weight tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in influenza A virus-infected macrophages. Sprenger, H., Bacher, M., Rischkowsky, E., Bender, A., Nain, M., Gemsa, D. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Involvement of toll-like receptor 3 in the immune response of lung epithelial cells to double-stranded RNA and influenza A virus. Guillot, L., Le Goffic, R., Bloch, S., Escriou, N., Akira, S., Chignard, M., Si-Tahar, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Association of influenza virus matrix protein with ribonucleoproteins. Ye, Z., Liu, T., Offringa, D.P., McInnis, J., Levandowski, R.A. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Therapeutic effects of aerosolized amantadine in naturally acquired infection due to influenza A virus. Hayden, F.G., Hall, W.J., Douglas, R.G. J. Infect. Dis. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Chemoprophylaxis of influenza A virus infections, with single doses of zanamivir, demonstrates that zanamivir is cleared slowly from the respiratory tract. Fenton, R.J., Morley, P.J., Owens, I.J., Gower, D., Parry, S., Crossman, L., Wong, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Impairment of the immune response to influenza vaccination in renal transplant recipients by cyclosporine, but not azathioprine. Versluis, D.J., Beyer, W.E., Masurel, N., Wenting, G.J., Weimar, W. Transplantation (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Utility of reverse transcriptase PCR for rapid diagnosis of influenza a virus infection and detection of amantadine-resistant influenza a virus isolates. Pachucki, C.T., Khurshid, M.A., Nawrocki, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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