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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Encephalitis


Psychiatry related information on Encephalitis


High impact information on Encephalitis


Chemical compound and disease context of Encephalitis


Biological context of Encephalitis


Anatomical context of Encephalitis


Gene context of Encephalitis


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Encephalitis

  • After intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the G protein, mice produced VSV-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous challenge with VSV [34].
  • The exact mechanism of this age-related susceptibility to brain inflammation has yet to be defined, but animal models have revealed that the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) initiates an intense acute neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response in the brains of young rats and mice that is not seen in adults [6] [35].
  • In situ hybridization for SIV and proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry demonstrated that SIV-infected and PCNA-positive cells were predominantly found in perivascular cuffs of viremic animals and in histopathological lesions that characterize SIV encephalitis (SIVE) in animals with AIDS [36].
  • As an in vivo model of encephalitis, wild-type or TLR3(-/-) mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with poly(I:C) or LPS, and microglial activation was assessed by cell surface marker or phospho-MAPK immunofluorescence [37].
  • Objective: To determine the associations between HIV encephalitis and other central nervous system (CNS) pathology, viral burden, cognitive impairment, zidovudine therapy and risk group in AIDS patients [38].


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  2. Acute fatal HIV encephalitis with negative serologic assays for antibody and antigen: diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction. Varma, V.A., Hunter, S., Tickman, R., Srinivasan, A., Swan, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  15. Autoantibodies to glutamate receptor GluR3 in Rasmussen's encephalitis. Rogers, S.W., Andrews, P.I., Gahring, L.C., Whisenand, T., Cauley, K., Crain, B., Hughes, T.E., Heinemann, S.F., McNamara, J.O. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
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  18. PET imaging of brain macrophages using the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in a macaque model of neuroAIDS. Venneti, S., Lopresti, B.J., Wang, G., Bissel, S.J., Mathis, C.A., Meltzer, C.C., Boada, F., Capuano, S., Kress, G.J., Davis, D.K., Ruszkiewicz, J., Reynolds, I.J., Murphey-Corb, M., Trichel, A.M., Wisniewski, S.R., Wiley, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Viral modulators of cell death provide new links to old pathways. Irusta, P.M., Chen, Y.B., Hardwick, J.M. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Autoimmunity to munc-18 in Rasmussen's encephalitis. Yang, R., Puranam, R.S., Butler, L.S., Qian, W.H., He, X.P., Moyer, M.B., Blackburn, K., Andrews, P.I., McNamara, J.O. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Organ-specific roles for transcription factor NF-kappaB in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease. O'Donnell, S.M., Hansberger, M.W., Connolly, J.L., Chappell, J.D., Watson, M.J., Pierce, J.M., Wetzel, J.D., Han, W., Barton, E.S., Forrest, J.C., Valyi-Nagy, T., Yull, F.E., Blackwell, T.S., Rottman, J.N., Sherry, B., Dermody, T.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis for toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Carr, A., Tindall, B., Brew, B.J., Marriott, D.J., Harkness, J.L., Penny, R., Cooper, D.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Up-regulation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 expression in astrocytes during HIV encephalitis. Boven, L.A., Vergnolle, N., Henry, S.D., Silva, C., Imai, Y., Holden, J., Warren, K., Hollenberg, M.D., Power, C. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis by nested polymerase chain reaction assay of cerebrospinal fluid. Aurelius, E., Johansson, B., Sköldenberg, B., Staland, A., Forsgren, M. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity. Xu, J., Wang, P., Li, Y., Li, G., Kaczmarek, L.K., Wu, Y., Koni, P.A., Flavell, R.A., Desir, G.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Human brain parenchymal microglia express CD14 and CD45 and are productively infected by HIV-1 in HIV-1 encephalitis. Beschorner, R. Brain Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. The urokinase receptor is overexpressed in the AIDS dementia complex and other neurological manifestations. Cinque, P., Nebuloni, M., Santovito, M.L., Price, R.W., Gisslen, M., Hagberg, L., Bestetti, A., Vago, G., Lazzarin, A., Blasi, F., Sidenius, N. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Sources of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid in the brain of HIV-1-infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques. Heyes, M.P., Saito, K., Lackner, A., Wiley, C.A., Achim, C.L., Markey, S.P. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Abeta-induced meningoencephalitis is IFN-gamma-dependent and is associated with T cell-dependent clearance of Abeta in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Monsonego, A., Imitola, J., Petrovic, S., Zota, V., Nemirovsky, A., Baron, R., Fisher, Y., Owens, T., Weiner, H.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis. Kurt-Jones, E.A., Chan, M., Zhou, S., Wang, J., Reed, G., Bronson, R., Arnold, M.M., Knipe, D.M., Finberg, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Chemokine expression in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis. Sasseville, V.G., Smith, M.M., Mackay, C.R., Pauley, D.R., Mansfield, K.G., Ringler, D.J., Lackner, A.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Interleukin-6 and cAMP induce stromal cell-derived factor-1 chemotaxis in astroglia by up-regulating CXCR4 cell surface expression. Implications for brain inflammation. Odemis, V., Moepps, B., Gierschik, P., Engele, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions. Sasseville, V.G., Newman, W., Brodie, S.J., Hesterberg, P., Pauley, D., Ringler, D.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Vaccinia virus recombinants: expression of VSV genes and protective immunization of mice and cattle. Mackett, M., Yilma, T., Rose, J.K., Moss, B. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. CXC chemokines generate age-related increases in neutrophil-mediated brain inflammation and blood-brain barrier breakdown. Anthony, D., Dempster, R., Fearn, S., Clements, J., Wells, G., Perry, V.H., Walker, K. Curr. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen expression as a marker of perivascular macrophages in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Williams, K., Schwartz, A., Corey, S., Orandle, M., Kennedy, W., Thompson, B., Alvarez, X., Brown, C., Gartner, S., Lackner, A. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Microglia recognize double-stranded RNA via TLR3. Town, T., Jeng, D., Alexopoulou, L., Tan, J., Flavell, R.A. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Influence of risk group and zidovudine therapy on the development of HIV encephalitis and cognitive impairment in AIDS patients. Bell, J.E., Donaldson, Y.K., Lowrie, S., McKenzie, C.A., Elton, R.A., Chiswick, A., Brettle, R.P., Ironside, J.W., Simmonds, P. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
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