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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Incus


High impact information on Incus

  • In addition, Bapx1 is expressed both within and surrounding the incus and the malleus [3].
  • Physiologic reestablishment of ossicular continuity during excision of retraction pockets: use of hydroxyapatite bone cement for rebridging the incus [4].
  • The presence of this pathology, the mid-frequency loss in incus sensitivity and the variability in incus velocity among animals suggested that abnormal stapes behavior in Brn4 deficient mice may determine the response of the ossicles, and thus account for the abnormal mid-frequency umbo behavior seen in knockout animals [5].
  • The Nitinol loop closed snugly around the incus with application to the top of the hook with a low temperature laser setting [6].
  • The design of the titanium prosthesis provides a crimp that is circumferential around the incus, and that prosthesis was selected in cases with a narrow incus [7].

Anatomical context of Incus

  • In fish, Bapx1 is responsible for the formation of the joint between the quadrate and articular (homologues of the malleus and incus, respectively) enabling an evolutionary comparison of the role of a regulatory gene in the transition of the proximal jawbones to middle ear ossicles [3].
  • (2) Titanium-gold-angle prosthesis according to Plester were crimped to the long process of the incus and positioned onto the head of the stapes forming an articulation [8].
  • METHODS: Five NdFeB magnets and four solid titanium cylinders were cemented onto the incus of five preserved human temporal bones and two cadaver heads [9].
  • The perichondria of malleus and incus cartilages express alkaline phosphatase at stage M24 [10].

Associations of Incus with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: An electromagnetic semiimplantable hearing device presently under development was implanted into the middle ear of six cats using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to cement a titanium-encased magnet to the incus [11].
  • Notched incus homografts were prepared prior to surgery and stored in 4% formalin [12].
  • In addition, we have used dense tricalcium phosphate ceramic to correct minor ossicular chain defects (for example, erosion of the long process of the incus) [13].
  • Both axial and coronal images are needed for evaluation of a dislocated malleus or incus [14].
  • CONCLUSION: In the present study we show that in the case of a missing crus longum of the incus, a tympanoplasty type II achieved a statistically significant better hearing gain than an autograft interposition [8].

Gene context of Incus


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Incus

  • RESULTS: In 1993 Applebaum proposed the use of a hydroxylapatite ossicular prosthesis as an alternative to incus interposition for the repair of incudostapedial discontinuity [19].
  • Twenty otologic procedures were performed in which the incus long process was resected and the defect bridged with one of four grafting materials: autograft ossicular bone, bone pate-fibrin glue, porous hydroxylapatite, and Plastipore-bone pate [20].


  1. Stapes prosthesis: evaluation with CT. Swartz, J.D., Lansman, A.K., Berger, A.S., Wolfson, R.J., Bell, G., Popky, G.L., Swartz, N.G. Radiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. The pars flaccida middle ear pressure and mastoid pneumatization index. Sadé, J., Fuchs, C., Luntz, M. Acta Otolaryngol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Bapx1 regulates patterning in the middle ear: altered regulatory role in the transition from the proximal jaw during vertebrate evolution. Tucker, A.S., Watson, R.P., Lettice, L.A., Yamada, G., Hill, R.E. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Physiologic reestablishment of ossicular continuity during excision of retraction pockets: use of hydroxyapatite bone cement for rebridging the incus. Elsheikh, M.N., Elsherief, H., Elsherief, S. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutation of the POU-domain gene Brn4/Pou3f4 affects middle-ear sound conduction in the mouse. Samadi, D.S., Saunders, J.C., Crenshaw, E.B. Hear. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Shape-memory stapes prosthesis for otosclerosis surgery. Knox, G.W., Reitan, H. Laryngoscope (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Stapedectomy outcomes: titanium versus teflon wire prosthesis. Massey, B.L., Kennedy, R.J., Shelton, C. Laryngoscope (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Tympanoplasty type II with ionomeric cement and titanium-gold-angle prostheses. Maassen, M.M., Zenner, H.P. The American journal of otology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of magnetic resonance imaging on a new electromagnetic implantable middle ear hearing device. Hunyadi, S., Werning, J.W., Lewin, J.S., Maniglia, A.J. The American journal of otology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Stage-specific expression patterns of alkaline phosphatase during development of the first arch skeleton in inbred C57BL/6 mouse embryos. Miyake, T., Cameron, A.M., Hall, B.K. J. Anat. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. A new adhesive bonding material for the cementation of implantable devices in otologic surgery. Maniglia, A.J., Nakabayashi, N., Paparella, M.M., Werning, J.W. The American journal of otology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A comparison of PORP, TORP, and incus homograft for ossicular reconstruction in chronic ear surgery. Silverstein, H., McDaniel, A.B., Lichtenstein, R. Laryngoscope (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Ceramic implants in otologic surgery. Plester, D., Jahnke, K. The American journal of otology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. CT appearances of ossicular injuries. Meriot, P., Veillon, F., Garcia, J.F., Nonent, M., Jezequel, J., Bourjat, P., Bellet, M. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Temporal bone pathology case of the month. Congenital fixation of the incus. Staecker, H., Merchant, S.N. The American journal of otology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Technical refinements and precautions during ionomeric cement reconstruction of incus erosion during revision stapedectomy. Chen, D.A., Arriaga, M.A. Laryngoscope (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Sensorineural hearing loss in posttraumatic incus dislocation. Dommerby, H., Tos, M. Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Incus subluxation and luxation during stapedectomy. Gołabek, W., Szymański, M., Siwiec, H., Morshed, K. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska. Sectio D: Medicina. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Ossiculoplasty in young children with the Applebaum incudostapedial joint prosthesis. Schwetschenau, E.L., Isaacson, G. Laryngoscope (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Autologous fibrin tissue adhesive for ossicular reconstruction in cats. Peters, B.R., Strunk, C.L., Fulmer, R.P. The American journal of otology. (1992) [Pubmed]
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