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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Gymnosperms


High impact information on Gymnosperms

  • GF14 is found in a variety of monocotyledons and dicotyledons, gymnosperms, and yeast [2].
  • We directly link the elimination of one LFY paralog, pleiotropically maintained in gymnosperms, to the sudden appearance of flowers in the fossil record [3].
  • We designed universal amplification primers for the petD intron and sequenced this intron in a representative selection of 47 angiosperms and three gymnosperms [4].
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the COL family demonstrated that it is organized into a few distinct groups, some of which evolved before the divergence of gymnosperms and angiosperms [5].
  • Coniferin, the glucoside of the monolignol coniferyl alcohol, accumulates to high levels in gymnosperms during spring-cambial reactivation [6].

Biological context of Gymnosperms


Anatomical context of Gymnosperms


Associations of Gymnosperms with chemical compounds

  • The site for post-transcriptional cleavage of the precursor polypeptide to make the A and B polypeptides is localized between asparagine -315 and glycine -316 and is highly conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms [10].
  • In general properties (divalent metal ion requirement, kinetic constants, molecular weight), the taxadiene synthase of Pacific yew is similar to the diterpene cyclase abietadiene synthase involved in resin acid biosynthesis in other gymnosperms [11].
  • It was found that a spectacular diversity of chemical structures encompassing proteins, terpenoids, coumarins, xanthones, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, and polysaccharides, which are elaborated by plant species as phylogenetically remote as the algae, gymnosperms and angiosperms, were capable of rendering the retroviral enzyme less active [12].
  • Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are distributed among all taxonomic levels of photosynthetic organisms from small algae to angiosperms and giant gymnosperms [13].
  • Formaldehyde, at its dimedone adduct, formaldemethone, has been detected by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography in extracts of all species tested of marine algae, macrofungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms [14].

Gene context of Gymnosperms

  • SEP genes have not been detected in gymnosperms and seem to have originated since the lineage leading to extant angiosperms diverged from extant gymnosperms [15].
  • Sequence comparison of AtTPS10 with previously cloned monoterpene synthases suggests independent events of functional specialization of terpene synthases during the evolution of terpenoid secondary metabolism in gymnosperms and angiosperms [16].
  • However, this study suggests that the absence of the ndhF gene in Pinus may be unique and is not a general characteristic of the gymnosperms [17].
  • A novel additional group II intron distinguishes the mitochondrial rps3 gene in gymnosperms [18].
  • Members of the AGAMOUS (AG) subfamily of MIKC-type MADS-box genes appear to control the development of reproductive organs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gymnosperms

  • We then carried out PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers which hybridized to the rice LINE homologues and Cin4 to ascertain whether LINE homologues are present in a variety of members of the plant kingdom, including angiosperms, gymnosperms, bracken, horsetail and liverwort [20].


  1. Identification of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene inducer from the pinaceous gymnosperm Pseudotsuga menziesii. Morris, J.W., Morris, R.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. A maize protein associated with the G-box binding complex has homology to brain regulatory proteins. de Vetten, N.C., Lu, G., Feri, R.J. Plant Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Pleiotropy, redundancy and the evolution of flowers. Albert, V.A., Oppenheimer, D.G., Lindqvist, C. Trends Plant Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of the petD group II intron: a case study in basal angiosperms. Löhne, C., Borsch, T. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Rapid evolution of the family of CONSTANS LIKE genes in plants. Lagercrantz, U., Axelsson, T. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A beta-glucosidase from lodgepole pine xylem specific for the lignin precursor coniferin. Dharmawardhana, D.P., Ellis, B.E., Carlson, J.E. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Seasonal changes in the xanthophyll cycle and antioxidants in sun-exposed and shaded parts of the crown of Cryptomeria japonica in relation to rhodoxanthin accumulation during cold acclimation. Han, Q., Katahata, S., Kakubari, Y., Mukai, Y. Tree Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. RNA editing in the cox3 mRNA of Magnolia is more extensive than in other dicot or monocot plants. Perrotta, G., Malek, O., Heiser, V., Brennicke, A., Grohmann, L., Quagliariello, C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Origin, evolution, and metabolic role of a novel glycolytic GAPDH enzyme recruited by land plant plastids. Petersen, J., Brinkmann, H., Cerff, R. J. Mol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a legumin-like storage protein cDNA of Douglas fir seeds. Leal, I., Misra, S. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Purification and characterization of taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene synthase from Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) that catalyzes the first committed step of taxol biosynthesis. Hezari, M., Lewis, N.G., Croteau, R. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) natural products with special emphasis on HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Ng, T.B., Huang, B., Fong, W.P., Yeung, H.W. Life Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Calcium oxalate in plants: formation and function. Franceschi, V.R., Nakata, P.A. Annual review of plant biology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Formaldehyde in the plant kingdom. Blunden, G., Carpenter, B.G., Adrian-Romero, M., Yang, M.H., Tyihák, E. Acta. Biol. Hung. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. The evolution of the SEPALLATA subfamily of MADS-box genes: a preangiosperm origin with multiple duplications throughout angiosperm history. Zahn, L.M., Kong, H., Leebens-Mack, J.H., Kim, S., Soltis, P.S., Landherr, L.L., Soltis, D.E., Depamphilis, C.W., Ma, H. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Terpenoid secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana: cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of a myrcene/(E)-beta-ocimene synthase. Bohlmann, J., Martin, D., Oldham, N.J., Gershenzon, J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The ndhF chloroplast gene detected in all vascular plant divisions. Neyland, R., Urbatsch, L.E. Planta (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel additional group II intron distinguishes the mitochondrial rps3 gene in gymnosperms. Regina, T.M., Picardi, E., Lopez, L., Pesole, G., Quagliariello, C. J. Mol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Patterns of gene duplication and functional evolution during the diversification of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS box genes in angiosperms. Kramer, E.M., Jaramillo, M.A., Di Stilio, V.S. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Non-LTR retrotransposons (LINEs) as ubiquitous components of plant genomes. Noma, K., Ohtsubo, E., Ohtsubo, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
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