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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Angiosperms

  • Both the nucleotide +329 to +334 stabilizing sequence of rbcL and a transcription enhancing sequence that lies between +126 and +170 encode well conserved (cyanobacteria through angiosperms) amino acid sequences; the evolution of expression control elements within the protein coding sequence of rbcL is considered [1].

High impact information on Angiosperms

  • Here we test whether the roles of these genes are conserved throughout the angiosperms by analysing the expression of AP3 and PI orthologues in the lower eudicot subclass Ranunculidae [2].
  • During lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes are believed to be converted into their corresponding alcohols by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and by sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively [3].
  • Our expression data also indicate that the role of INO in the outgrowth and abaxial-adaxial polarity of the outer integument has been conserved between two divergent angiosperms, the rosid Arabidopsis and the asterid Impatiens [4].
  • In angiosperms, GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate the development of at least three chloroplast types [5].
  • Species of several unrelated families within the angiosperms are able to constitutively produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids as a defense against herbivores [6].

Biological context of Angiosperms

  • We infer that rps13 was lost from the mitochondrial genome and substituted by a duplicated nuclear gene of chloroplast origin early in rosid evolution, whereas rps8 loss and substitution by a gene of nuclear/cytosolic origin occurred much earlier, in a common ancestor of angiosperms and gymnosperms [7].
  • Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms [8].
  • C4 photosynthesis has evolved multiple times among the angiosperms: the spatial rearrangement of the photosynthetic apparatus, combined with alterations to the leaf structure, allows CO2 to be concentrated around Rubisco [9].
  • The expression of dek1 in most plant tissues in maize and Arabidopsis, as well as its presence in a variety of higher plants, including angiosperms and gymnosperms, suggests that DEK1 plays a conserved role in plant signal transduction [10].
  • The FLO/LFY genes in angiosperms are conserved master regulators of floral identity without any obvious effects on cell division [11].

Anatomical context of Angiosperms

  • This complex history of gene fission and gene transfer has created four distinct types of rpl2 structures or compartmentalizations in angiosperms: (1) intact rpl2 gene in the mitochondrion, (2) intact gene in the nucleus, (3) split gene, 5' in the mitochondrion and 3' in the nucleus, and (4) split gene, both parts in the nucleus [12].
  • In pairwise comparisons of photosynthetic angiosperms to Glycine, the core 19S rDNA sequences differed by less than 1.4%, thus supporting the observation that variation in mitochondrial rDNA is 3-4 times lower than seen in protein coding and rDNA genes of other subcellular organelles [13].

Associations of Angiosperms with chemical compounds


Gene context of Angiosperms

  • The identification of IBR5 relatives in other flowering plants suggests that IBR5 function is conserved throughout angiosperms [18].
  • Two differentially expressed and regulated POR enzymes, PORA and PORB, have recently been discovered in angiosperms [19].
  • In contrast, we observed no cross-hybridization of a probe of chlL to DNA samples from representative angiosperms that require light for chlorophyll synthesis, in support of our conclusion that chlL is involved in light-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis [20].
  • Antibodies prepared against overexpressed Brassica AGL15 lacking the conserved MADS domain were used to probe immunoblots, and AGL15-related proteins were found in embryos of a variety of angiosperms, including plants as distantly related as maize [21].
  • No CAD homologue displayed a specific requirement for sinapyl aldehyde, which was in direct contrast with unfounded claims for a so-called sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase in angiosperms [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Angiosperms


  1. Gene elements that affect the longevity of rbcL sequence-containing transcripts in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts. Singh, M., Boutanaev, A., Zucchi, P., Bogorad, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Evolution of genetic mechanisms controlling petal development. Kramer, E.M., Irish, V.F. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis. Sibout, R., Eudes, A., Mouille, G., Pollet, B., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L., Séguin, A. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanisms of derived unitegmy among Impatiens species. McAbee, J.M., Kuzoff, R.K., Gasser, C.S. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. A conserved transcription factor mediates nuclear control of organelle biogenesis in anciently diverged land plants. Yasumura, Y., Moylan, E.C., Langdale, J.A. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Repeated evolution of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-mediated defense system in separate angiosperm lineages. Reimann, A., Nurhayati, N., Backenköhler, A., Ober, D. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Genes for two mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in flowering plants are derived from their chloroplast or cytosolic counterparts. Adams, K.L., Daley, D.O., Whelan, J., Palmer, J.D. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation and methylation direct syringyl lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Osakabe, K., Tsao, C.C., Li, L., Popko, J.L., Umezawa, T., Carraway, D.T., Smeltzer, R.H., Joshi, C.P., Chiang, V.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. The future of C4 research--maize, Flaveria or Cleome? Brown, N.J., Parsley, K., Hibberd, J.M. Trends Plant Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The defective kernel 1 (dek1) gene required for aleurone cell development in the endosperm of maize grains encodes a membrane protein of the calpain gene superfamily. Lid, S.E., Gruis, D., Jung, R., Lorentzen, J.A., Ananiev, E., Chamberlin, M., Niu, X., Meeley, R., Nichols, S., Olsen, O.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Diversification of gene function: homologs of the floral regulator FLO/LFY control the first zygotic cell division in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Tanahashi, T., Sumikawa, N., Kato, M., Hasebe, M. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Mitochondrial gene transfer in pieces: fission of the ribosomal protein gene rpl2 and partial or complete gene transfer to the nucleus. Adams, K.L., Ong, H.C., Palmer, J.D. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNAs from holoparasitic plants. Duff, R.J., Nickrent, D.L. J. Mol. Evol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. The last step of syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms is regulated by a novel gene encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Li, L., Cheng, X.F., Leshkevich, J., Umezawa, T., Harding, S.A., Chiang, V.L. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Expansin message regulation in parasitic angiosperms: marking time in development. O'Malley, R.C., Lynn, D.G. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Ferulate-5-hydroxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana defines a new family of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. Meyer, K., Cusumano, J.C., Somerville, C., Chapple, C.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Pinus banksiana has at least seven expressed alcohol dehydrogenase genes in two linked groups. Perry, D.J., Furnier, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. IBR5, a dual-specificity phosphatase-like protein modulating auxin and abscisic acid responsiveness in Arabidopsis. Monroe-Augustus, M., Zolman, B.K., Bartel, B. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Etioplast differentiation in arabidopsis: both PORA and PORB restore the prolamellar body and photoactive protochlorophyllide-F655 to the cop1 photomorphogenic mutant. Sperling, U., Franck, F., van Cleve, B., Frick, G., Apel, K., Armstrong, G.A. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Light-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis: involvement of the chloroplast gene chlL (frxC). Suzuki, J.Y., Bauer, C.E. Plant Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. AGL15, a MADS domain protein expressed in developing embryos. Heck, G.R., Perry, S.E., Nichols, K.W., Fernandez, D.E. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Functional reclassification of the putative cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase multigene family in Arabidopsis. Kim, S.J., Kim, M.R., Bedgar, D.L., Moinuddin, S.G., Cardenas, C.L., Davin, L.B., Kang, C., Lewis, N.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. A cDNA encoding a cold-induced glycine-rich RNA binding protein from Prunus avium expressed in embryonic axes. Stephen, J.R., Dent, K.C., Finch-Savage, W.E. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
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