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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L9BFJ     (1R,4R)-4-[18-[(4S)-4- hydroxy-2,6,6...

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Disease relevance of Lutein

  • Intakes of the carotenoids beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin were not associated with risk of non-stage A1 prostate cancer; only lycopene intake was related to lower risk (age- and energy-adjusted RR = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-0.99 for high versus low quintile of intake; P for trend = .04) [1].
  • This observation suggests that other constituents of vegetables, such as lutein, lycopene, and indoles, and others, may also protect against lung cancer in humans [2].
  • Foods that are high in fat and cholesterol, such as red meat, margarine, and eggs, were positively associated with endometrial cancer, whereas cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, particularly those high in lutein, were inversely associated [3].
  • Although increasing the intake of lutein or zeaxanthin might prove to be protective against the development of age-related macular degeneration, a causative relationship has yet to be experimentally demonstrated [4].
  • Pepper (Capsicum annuum) beta-cyclohexenyl xanthophyll epoxidase cDNA was cloned and the corresponding enzyme overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli, for investigation of its catalytic activity [5].

Psychiatry related information on Lutein


High impact information on Lutein

  • In plants, the xanthophyll cycle (the reversible interconversion of two carotenoids, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) has a key photoprotective role and is therefore a promising target for genetic engineering to enhance stress tolerance [9].
  • This inverse association was found to be independent of vitamin C,alpha-tocopherol, folic acid, dietary fiber, and alpha-carotene.Adjusting for beta-carotene or lutein + zeaxanthin somewhat attenuated the inverse association with vegetable intake [10].
  • VEGF was predominantly produced in tissues that acquire new capillary networks (theca layers, lutein cells, endometrial stroma, and the maternal decidua, respectively) [11].
  • The results indicated that fresh, green, leafy vegetables were moderately high in beta carotene (0.5-14.6 mg/100 g) and very high in oxygenated carotenoids or xanthophylls, primarily lutein and its stereoisomers (2.3-63.0 mg/100g) [corrected] [12].
  • Zeaxanthin accumulation in the absence of a functional xanthophyll cycle protects Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from photooxidative stress [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lutein

  • RESULTS: In the pooled analyses, alpha-carotene and lycopene intakes were significantly associated with a lower risk of lung cancer; the association with beta-carotene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin intakes were inverse but not significant [14].
  • We have then assessed the chemopreventive efficacy of beta-carotene and lutein at dose levels of approximately 4 and 8% of the 2,500 ppm tolerated dose (TD) and also approximately 40 and 80% of the TD on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis, using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as a surrogate biomarker for colon cancer [15].
  • PURPOSE: A substantial proportion of the population at risk for visual loss from age-related macular degeneration consumes supplements containing high doses of lutein, but clinical studies to date have shown only modest and variable increases in macular carotenoid pigments in response to supplementation [16].
  • Patients with metastatic prostate cancer, when compared with patients having localized disease, had a higher Gleason score (p < 0.01) and had more hormonal treatment, but lower concentrations of PSA (p < 0.05), alpha-tocopherol (p < or = 0.05), retinol (p < 0.01), lutein (p < 0.05) and lycopene (p < 0.01) [17].
  • PURPOSE: To assess the associations of plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids with the risk of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and cataract in the population-based Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l'Age (POLA) Study. METHODS: Retinal photographs were graded according to the international classification [18].

Biological context of Lutein

  • Arabidopsis carotenoid mutants demonstrate that lutein is not essential for photosynthesis in higher plants [19].
  • The lut1 mutations are recessive, accumulate high levels of zeinoxanthin, which is the immediate precursor of lutein, and define lut1 as a disruption in epsilon ring hydroxylation [19].
  • Surprisingly, despite the absence of lutein, neither the lut1 nor lut2 mutation causes a visible deleterious phenotype or altered chlorophyll content, but both mutants have significantly higher levels of beta, beta-carotenoids [19].
  • In addition, the acclimation of the xanthophyll cycle content and composition of leaves to contrasting environments with different demands for photoprotection is summarized [20].
  • Xanthophyll binding sites of the CP29 (Lhcb4) subunit of higher plant photosystem II investigated by domain swapping and mutation analysis [21].

Anatomical context of Lutein


Associations of Lutein with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Lutein


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lutein

  • Genetic dissection of xanthophyll metabolism in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii revealed functions for specific xanthophylls in the nonradiative dissipation of excess absorbed light energy, measured as nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence [36].
  • Lutein-binding capacity of the recombinant CBP (rCBP) determined by incubating rCBP with lutein followed by immunoprecipitation using anti-CBP IgG conjugated to protein A-Sepharose, demonstrated the formation of a lutein-rCBP complex [37].
  • Putative xanthophyll binding sequences, identified by primary structure analysis as a stretch of hydrophobic residues including an acidic term, were analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis or, in one case, by deleting the entire sequence [21].
  • In men, serum lutein remained significantly associated with MP density after adjustment for age, total cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking [38].
  • DESIGN: After a run-in period of 7 d, 19 healthy volunteers were assigned to receive daily oral doses of 4.1 mg lutein (n = 8; group 1) or 20.5 mg lutein (n = 8; group 2) for 42 d or no lutein (n = 3; control group) [39].


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  10. Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients. Freudenheim, J.L., Marshall, J.R., Vena, J.E., Laughlin, R., Brasure, J.R., Swanson, M.K., Nemoto, T., Graham, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  14. Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts. Michaud, D.S., Feskanich, D., Rimm, E.B., Colditz, G.A., Speizer, F.E., Willett, W.C., Giovannucci, E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Low doses of beta-carotene and lutein inhibit AOM-induced rat colonic ACF formation but high doses augment ACF incidence. Raju, J., Swamy, M.V., Cooma, I., Patlolla, J.M., Pittman, B., Reddy, B.S., Steele, V.E., Rao, C.V. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. HPLC measurement of ocular carotenoid levels in human donor eyes in the lutein supplementation era. Bhosale, P., Zhao, d.a. .Y., Bernstein, P.S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Vitamin antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and the systemic inflammatory response in patients with prostate cancer. Almushatat, A.S., Talwar, D., McArdle, P.A., Williamson, C., Sattar, N., O'Reilly, D.S., Underwood, M.A., McMillan, D.C. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modifiable risk factors for age-related maculopathy and cataract: the POLA Study. Delcourt, C., Carrière, I., Delage, M., Barberger-Gateau, P., Schalch, W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Arabidopsis carotenoid mutants demonstrate that lutein is not essential for photosynthesis in higher plants. Pogson, B., McDonald, K.A., Truong, M., Britton, G., DellaPenna, D. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Carotenoids 3: in vivo function of carotenoids in higher plants. Demmig-Adams, B., Gilmore, A.M., Adams, W.W. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  22. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development. Kamat, B.R., Brown, L.F., Manseau, E.J., Senger, D.R., Dvorak, H.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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