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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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High impact information on Paternity

  • Dispute surfaces over paternity of RU 486 [1].
  • Paternity was examined with probes for five polymorphic loci on the Y chromosome, for the pseudo beta-globin locus on chromosome 11 and by Jeffreys's hypervariable probes [2].
  • An analysis was made of 1,393 paternity cases typed uniformly for HLA-A and -B, ABO, Rh, and MNSs, in which the mother named one man only as the child's father and in which both mother and putative father identified themselves as Caucasian [3].
  • We have examined the strategic aspects of using RFLPs for paternity analysis, comparing the efficacy and cost of a multimarker haplotypic set with those of a comparable set of unlinked RFLPs, using published frequencies for the beta-globin complex, the serum albumin region, and the growth hormone region [4].
  • Their proposed "new method" of calculating a posterior probability is based on the use of a less informative likelihood ratio 1/(1-PE) instead of Gürtler's fully informative paternity index X/Y (Acta Med Leg Soc Liege 9:83-93, 1956), but is otherwise identical to the Bayesian approach originally introduced by Essen-Möller in 1938 [5].

Biological context of Paternity

  • Paternity was established by the pedigree analysis of hypervariable 'minisatellite' DNA polymorphisms and the most probable explanation of the recombination event is a crossover between the psi beta globin gene and the beta globin gene [6].
  • We report here a case in which two apparent exclusions of paternity were obtained (at the loci FESFPS and TPOX), from a total of nineteen loci examined (short tandem repeats, AMFLPs, DQA1, Polymarkers) [7].
  • Genetic polymorphisms of seven human lymphocyte proteins, analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, were evaluated in respect to their suitability for paternity testing [8].
  • The group specific component/vitamin D binding protein (GC/DBP) system in the analysis of disputed paternities [9].
  • In the other case, it was necessary to postulate the presence of a rare haplotype, MSu, in the MNS blood group system to explain paternity [10].

Anatomical context of Paternity

  • The father had a Y chromosome of average size and paternity was established wih a plausibility of 97.7% by HLA and erythrocyte antigen typing [11].

Associations of Paternity with chemical compounds

  • Typing for A2 and O2 by diagnostic restriction enzyme digestion is a sensitive, nonradioactive assay that provides a convenient method useful for forensic and paternity testing and for clarifying anomalous serological results [12].
  • In the present study, we present a genetic likelihood-based iterative procedure for fractional allocation of paternity within a progeny pool and apply this method to a population of Chamaelirium luteum, a dioecious member of the Liliaceae [13].
  • Immunosuppressive regimens were reported for 37 paternities; drug protocols at the time of conception were as follows: 25 (60%) CsA/prednisone/AZA, 6 (14%) CsA/prednisone, 4 (10%) CsA/AZA, and 2 (5%) AZA/prednisone [14].
  • How well do mating frequency and duration predict paternity success in the polygynandrous water strider Aquarius remigis [15]?
  • We compared second male paternity success (P2) between females exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2) and control females kept in air, in both cases for 30 min between two matings [16].

Gene context of Paternity

  • Subsequent molecular analyses excluded the germinal MSH2 344delA alteration identified in their son and at the same time paternity was confirmed with a set of informative polymorphic markers [17].
  • During routine paternity testing an apparent maternal exclusion was suggested by the PGM1 enzyme system (mother PGM1 1, child PGM1 2) and by the Duffy system (mother Fy(a-b+), child Fy(a+b-] [18].
  • With the TF system 36 accused men, and with the PI system 54 were excluded from paternity from a total of 344 (TF) respectively 347 (PI) cases [19].
  • The data presented here suggest that HP subtypes provide a useful genetic marker for population studies and paternity testing [20].
  • Properdin factor B (glycine-rich beta-glycoprotein or C3 proactivator)-polymorphism: genetic and biochemical aspects. First application to paternity cases [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Paternity


  1. Dispute surfaces over paternity of RU 486. Cherfas, J. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Isodisomy of chromosome 7 in a patient with cystic fibrosis: could uniparental disomy be common in humans? Voss, R., Ben-Simon, E., Avital, A., Godfrey, S., Zlotogora, J., Dagan, J., Tikochinski, Y., Hillel, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Empirical validation of the Essen-Möller probability of paternity. Mickey, M.R., Gjertson, D.W., Terasaki, P.I. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. The use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in paternity analysis. Smouse, P.E., Chakraborty, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. No fallacies in the formulation of the paternity index. Baur, M.P., Elston, R.C., Gürtler, H., Henningsen, K., Hummel, K., Matsumoto, H., Mayr, W., Moris, J.W., Niejenhuis, L., Polesky, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Meiotic recombination between two polymorphic restriction sites within the beta globin gene cluster. Old, J.M., Heath, C., Fitches, A., Thein, S.L., Jeffreys, A.J., Petrou, M., Modell, B., Weatherall, D.J. J. Med. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. DNA analysis in disputed parentage: the occurrence of two apparently false exclusions of paternity, both at short tandem repeat (STR) loci, in the one child. Gunn, P.R., Trueman, K., Stapleton, P., Klarkowski, D.B. Electrophoresis (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of human lymphocyte proteins: two-dimensional polymorphisms and paternity testing. Waldinger, D., Cleve, H. Electrophoresis (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. The group specific component/vitamin D binding protein (GC/DBP) system in the analysis of disputed paternities. Constans, J., Cleve, H. Electrophoresis (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. The value of variable number of tandem-repeat polymorphisms in cases of disputed paternity not resolved by conventional markers: two case reports. Schlaphoff, T.E., Reavis, S.C., Rousseau, J., Creemers, P.C., du Toit, E.D. Transfusion (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Prenatal diagnosis of a de novo non-fluorescent Y chromosome. Priest, J.H., Chen, A.T., Fernhoff, P.M., Reidy, J.A., Whitsett, C. J. Med. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. A rapid and reliable PCR method for genotyping the ABO blood group. II: A2 and O2 alleles. O'Keefe, D.S., Dobrovic, A. Hum. Mutat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic analysis of male reproductive contributions in Chamaelirium luteum (L.) gray (Liliaceae). Smouse, P.E., Meagher, T.R. Genetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Paternity by cardiac transplant recipients. Wagoner, L.E., Taylor, D.O., Price, G.D., Hagan, M.E., Holland, C., Olsen, S.L., Renlund, D.G. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. How well do mating frequency and duration predict paternity success in the polygynandrous water strider Aquarius remigis? Vermette, R., Fairbairn, D.J. Evolution (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Female influence over offspring paternity in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Fedina, T.Y., Lewis, S.M. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. A proven de novo germline mutation in HNPCC. Kraus, C., Kastl, S., Günther, K., Klessinger, S., Hohenberger, W., Ballhausen, W.G. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene localisation of the PGM1 enzyme system and the Duffy blood groups on chromosome No. 1 by means of a new fragile site at 1p31. Herbich, J., Szilvassy, J., Schnedl, W. Hum. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Application of immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing to forensic hemogenetics: a survey on a three year experience with the transferrin (TF) and alpha 1-antitrypsin (PI) systems. Skoda, U., Fassbender, L., Händler, C., Mauff, G., Pulverer, G. Electrophoresis (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Haptoglobin subtypes in the East Midlands (United Kingdom). Mastana, S.S., Fisher, P. Int. J. Legal Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Properdin factor B (glycine-rich beta-glycoprotein or C3 proactivator)-polymorphism: genetic and biochemical aspects. First application to paternity cases. Mauff, G., Hummel, K., Pulverer, G. Zeitschrift für Immunitätsforschung, experimentelle und klinische Immunologie. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Haptoglobin subtype determination by isoelectric focusing in agarose gel: application to paternity testing and presentation of a new alpha 2-variant. Thymann, M., Svensmark, O., Masumba, G., Broksø, H., Skibsby, L.B. Electrophoresis (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Genetic variation of microsatellite markers D1S117, D6S89, D11S35, APOC2, and D21S168 in the Spanish population. Fuentes, J.J., Banchs, I., Volpini, V., Estivill, X. Int. J. Legal Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Red cell PGM1 (phosphoglucomutase) phenotyping by isoelectric focussing and starch gel electrophoresis in cases of disputed paternity in the United Kingdom. An evaluation of the results obtained in 95 cases. Welch, S.G., Wood, N.J., Dodd, B.E. Forensic Sci. Int. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Technical and theoretical considerations in the HLA typing of amniotic fluid cells for prenatal diagnosis and paternity testing. Pollack, M.S., Heagney, S.D., Braun, D., O'Neill, G.J. Prenat. Diagn. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a novel O allele in the Taiwanese population. Chen, D.P., Tseng, C.P., Wang, W.T., Sun, C.F. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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