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Gene Review

APOC2  -  apolipoprotein C-II

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: APC2, APO-CII, APOC-II, Apo-CII, ApoC-II, ...
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Disease relevance of APOC2


Psychiatry related information on APOC2


High impact information on APOC2


Chemical compound and disease context of APOC2


Biological context of APOC2

  • Results were combined with data from CHEF and field inversion-gel-electrophoresis separation of large-sized DNA restriction fragments to establish a map localizing both DNA-repair genes and the CKMM gene within the same 250 kb of DNA, the order being cen-CKMM-ERCC2-ERCC1-ter, with APOC2 being at more than 260 kb proximal to CKMM [16].
  • The putative glioma tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 19q maps between APOC2 and HRC [1].
  • To narrow the location of this tumor suppressor further, we studied 138 gliomas for loss of allelic heterozygosity at six microsatellite polymorphisms between APOC2 and HRC, including a newly described polymorphism in the ERCC2 gene [17].
  • In the present report it is shown that the same Hpa I RFLP can be revealed with both the APOC1 and APOC2 cDNA probes [3].
  • Linkage disequilibrium detected between dystrophia myotonica and APOC2 locus in the Finnish population [18].

Anatomical context of APOC2


Associations of APOC2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of APOC2

  • These results indicated that neither TG solubility nor amount of apoC-II binding were determinate factors in LPL-mediated lipolysis under physiological conditions [25].

Enzymatic interactions of APOC2


Regulatory relationships of APOC2

  • To determine the minimal sequence requirements for activation, we have prepared both native and synthetic fragments of apoC-II and tested them for their ability to activate LPL [28].

Other interactions of APOC2

  • These studies suggest that the maximal activation of LPL by apoC-II requires a minimal sequence contained within residues 55--78 [28].
  • When taken together with previous studies, our results suggest the following physical gene map: pter-LDLR-C3-p13.2-PEPD-centromere-(APOE, APOC1, APOC2, GPI)-qter [29].
  • 4. The minimum area of overlap shared by the interstitial deletions is between APOC2 and HRC, including ERCC1, DM, and D19S112 [1].
  • The apolipoprotein gene cluster on human chromosome 19 (APOC1, APOC2, APOE) has been localised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to within 200 kb of a chronic lymphocytic leukemia-associated translocation breakpoint [30].
  • The results provide evidence for close linkage between PEPD and APOC2 in males [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of APOC2


  1. The putative glioma tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 19q maps between APOC2 and HRC. Rubio, M.P., Correa, K.M., Ueki, K., Mohrenweiser, H.W., Gusella, J.F., von Deimling, A., Louis, D.N. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Recombination events that locate myotonic dystrophy distal to APOC2 on 19q. Johnson, K., Shelbourne, P., Davies, J., Buxton, J., Nimmo, E., Anvret, M., Bonduelle, M., Williamson, B., Savontaus, M.L. Genomics (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Apolipoprotein gene cluster on chromosome 19. Definite localization of the APOC2 gene and the polymorphic Hpa I site associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Smit, M., van der Kooij-Meijs, E., Frants, R.R., Havekes, L., Klasen, E.C. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Human creatine kinase genes on chromosomes 15 and 19, and proximity of the gene for the muscle form to the genes for apolipoprotein C2 and excision repair. Stallings, R.L., Olson, E., Strauss, A.W., Thompson, L.H., Bachinski, L.L., Siciliano, M.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Inherited apolipoprotein A-V deficiency in severe hypertriglyceridemia. Oliva, C.P., Pisciotta, L., Li Volti, G., Sambataro, M.P., Cantafora, A., Bellocchio, A., Catapano, A., Tarugi, P., Bertolini, S., Calandra, S. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Are the associations between Alzheimer's disease and polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E and the apolipoprotein CII genes due to linkage disequilibrium? Tsuda, T., Lopez, R., Rogaeva, E.A., Freedman, M., Rogaev, E., Drachman, D., Pollen, D., Haines, J., Liang, Y., McLachlan, D.R. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of an apolipoprotein CII allele with familial dementia of the Alzheimer type. Schellenberg, G.D., Deeb, S.S., Boehnke, M., Bryant, E.M., Martin, G.M., Lampe, T.H., Bird, T.D. J. Neurogenet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. A genome screen in multiple sclerosis reveals susceptibility loci on chromosome 6p21 and 17q22. Sawcer, S., Jones, H.B., Feakes, R., Gray, J., Smaldon, N., Chataway, J., Robertson, N., Clayton, D., Goodfellow, P.N., Compston, A. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypertriglyceridemia associated with deficiency of apolipoprotein C-II. Breckenridge, W.C., Little, J.A., Steiner, G., Chow, A., Poapst, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Inheritance of apolipoprotein C-II deficiency with hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Cox, D.W., Breckenridge, W.C., Little, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Linkage analysis of the apolipoprotein C2 gene and myotonic dystrophy on human chromosome 19 reveals linkage disequilibrium in a French-Canadian population. MacKenzie, A.E., MacLeod, H.L., Hunter, A.G., Korneluk, R.G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels in primate liver. Induction by estrogen in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2. Archer, T.K., Tam, S.P., Deugau, K.V., Deeley, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipid and apolipoprotein profiles of uremic dyslipoproteinemia--relation to renal function and dialysis. Attman, P.O., Alaupovic, P. Nephron (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Hypertriglyceridemia and lowered apolipoprotein C-II/C-III ratio in uremia: effect of a fibric acid, clinofibrate. Nishizawa, Y., Shoji, T., Nishitani, H., Yamakawa, M., Konishi, T., Kawasaki, K., Morii, H. Kidney Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic cynomolgus monkey is a model of hypertriglyceridemia with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Tsutsumi, K., Iwamoto, T., Hagi, A., Kohri, H. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. A long-range restriction map of the human chromosome 19q13 region: close physical linkage between CKMM and the ERCC1 and ERCC2 genes. Smeets, H., Bachinski, L., Coerwinkel, M., Schepens, J., Hoeijmakers, J., van Duin, M., Grzeschik, K.H., Weber, C.A., de Jong, P., Siciliano, M.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Chromosome 19q deletions in human gliomas overlap telomeric to D19S219 and may target a 425 kb region centromeric to D19S112. Yong, W.H., Chou, D., Ueki, K., Harsh, G.R., von Deimling, A., Gusella, J.F., Mohrenweiser, H.W., Louis, D.N. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Linkage disequilibrium detected between dystrophia myotonica and APOC2 locus in the Finnish population. Nokelainen, P., Alanen-Kurki, L., Winqvist, R., Falck, B., Somer, H., Leisti, J., Johnson, K., Savontaus, M.L., Peltonen, L. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of the apolipoprotein C-II gene during myelomonocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells. Chun, E.M., Park, Y.J., Kang, H.S., Cho, H.M., Jun, D.Y., Kim, Y.H. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency: detection of immunoreactive apolipoprotein C-II in the intestinal mucosa of two patients. Capurso, A., Mogavero, A.M., Resta, F., Di Tommaso, M., Taverniti, P., Turturro, F., La Rosa, M., Marcovina, S., Catapano, A.L. J. Lipid Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Absence of N-glycosylation at asparagine 43 in human lipoprotein lipase induces its accumulation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and alters this cellular compartment. Buscá, R., Pujana, M.A., Pognonec, P., Auwerx, J., Deeb, S.S., Reina, M., Vilaró, S. J. Lipid Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides: impact of rare and common mutations. Talmud, P.J. Current atherosclerosis reports. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Lipoprotein lipase cofactor activity of a carboxyl-terminal peptide of apolipoprotein C-II. Musliner, T.A., Church, E.C., Herbert, P.N., Kingston, M.J., Shulman, R.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Primary structure of very low density apolipoprotein C-II of human plasma. Jackson, R.L., Baker, H.N., Gilliam, E.B., Gotto, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of sphingomyelin and cholesterol on lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis in lipid emulsions. Arimoto, I., Saito, H., Kawashima, Y., Miyajima, K., Handa, T. J. Lipid Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Apolipoprotein C-II is a novel substrate for matrix metalloproteinases. Kim, S.Y., Park, S.M., Lee, S.T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Purification and characterization of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase from human postheparin plasma: production of monospecific antibody to the individual lipase. Ikeda, Y., Takagi, A., Yamamoto, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by native and synthetic fragments of human plasma apolipoprotein C-II. Kinnunen, P.K., Jackson, R.L., Smith, L.C., Gotto, A.M., Sparrow, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Regional mapping of human chromosome 19: organization of genes for plasma lipid transport (APOC1, -C2, and -E and LDLR) and the genes C3, PEPD, and GPI. Lusis, A.J., Heinzmann, C., Sparkes, R.S., Scott, J., Knott, T.J., Geller, R., Sparkes, M.C., Mohandas, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Long-range restriction map of a region of human chromosome 19 containing the apolipoprotein genes, a CLL-associated translocation breakpoint, and two polymorphic MluI sites. Shaw, D.J., Harley, H.G., Brook, J.D., McKeithan, T.W. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Linkage between the loci for peptidase D and apolipoprotein CII on chromosome 19. Ball, S.P., Donald, J.A., Corney, G., Humphries, S.E. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Prenatal diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy using closely linked flanking markers. Lavedan, C., Hofmann, H., Shelbourne, P., Duros, C., Savoy, D., Johnson, K., Junien, C. J. Med. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Human glandular Kallikrein genes: genetic and physical mapping of the KLK1 locus using a highly polymorphic microsatellite PCR marker. Richards, R.I., Holman, K., Shen, Y., Kozman, H., Harley, H., Brook, D., Shaw, D. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Molecular cloning and characteristics of a new apolipoprotein C-II mutant identified in three unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Pullinger, C.R., Zysow, B.R., Hennessy, L.K., Frost, P.H., Malloy, M.J., Kane, J.P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Functional analyses of human apolipoprotein CII by site-directed mutagenesis: identification of residues important for activation of lipoprotein lipase. Shen, Y., Lookene, A., Nilsson, S., Olivecrona, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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