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Chemical Compound Review

Curretab     (8S,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-17- ethanoyl-10,13...

Synonyms: Agolutin, Corlutin, Corporin, Gesterol, Gestiron, ...
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Disease relevance of Pregnenedione

  • The reproductive hormone defects of Lats1-/- mice are reminiscent of isolated LH-hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and corpus luteum insufficiency in humans [1].
  • In adulthood, angiogenesis takes place during corpus luteum formation and in pathological conditions such as wound healing, diabetic retinopathy, and tumor-igenesis [2].
  • Corpus luteum hemorrhage. Cause of acute abdominal pain in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy [3].
  • Detailed studies of urinary steroids in patients with breast cancer and normal controls have shown that abnormal aging processes and depressed corpus luteum function were associated with the presence of this form of cancer [4].
  • In nine women with unruptured ectopic pregnancy, prostaglandin F2 alpha was injected under laparoscopic control into the affected oviduct and in eight patients also into the ovary containing the corpus luteum [5].
  • Over the last decade, there have been a growing number of studies showing that exogenous administration of progesterone or some of its metabolites can be successfully used to treat traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, as well as ischemic stroke [6].
  • We find spontaneous preterm labor in the absence of progesterone withdrawal in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase hypomorphic mice [7].

Psychiatry related information on Pregnenedione


High impact information on Pregnenedione


Chemical compound and disease context of Pregnenedione


Biological context of Pregnenedione

  • In the ovary, tissue remodeling is requisite for growth and expansion of the follicle, breakdown of the follicular wall during the ovulatory process, transformation of the postovulatory follicle into the corpus luteum, as well as the structural dissolution of the corpus luteum during luteal regression [17].
  • They may serve as a redundant system to assure that there is sufficient secretion of the primary corpus luteum to maintain pregnancy until the placenta assumes its role as the principal steroidogenic organ of gestation [18].
  • Progesterone (PRE) or glucocorticoid receptor (GRE) DNA binding sites are often found clustered with binding sites for other transcription factors [19].
  • The clinical implications of these primate studies may be far-reaching because they indicate new potential for childbearing by otherwise infertile or sterile women who have a competent uterus but lack the hormonal milieu provided by ovarian follicular maturation and corpus luteum function in the normal menstrual cycle [20].
  • Prolactin interferes with the function of the corpus luteum, as was demonstrated by repeatedly finding a short luteal phase in the ovulatory cycles of two hyperprolactinaemic women after prolactin supression by bromocriptine had been discontinued [21].

Anatomical context of Pregnenedione

  • The marked inhibitory effects of GnRH and its agonists on corpus luteum function suggest that these compounds could exert direct actions by binding to specific receptors on luteal cells [22].
  • The conceptus within the uterus, therefore, is believed to produce a substance or substances which directly or indirectly prolong the lifespan of the corpus luteum and prevent a return to ovarian cyclicity [23].
  • Implication of absence of HCG-like gonadotrophin in the blastocyst for control of corpus luteum function in pregnant rabbit [24].
  • The development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation [25].
  • The alterations in morphology and function of the ovarian follicle as it matures, ovulates, and becomes a corpus luteum are dramatic [26].

Associations of Pregnenedione with other chemical compounds

  • GnRH-induced interruption of reproductive cycles and pregnancy is associated with diminished progesterone production, implying defective function of the corpus luteum [22].
  • These tissues include ovarian steroidogenic theca cells and lutein cells of the corpus luteum, testosterone-producing Leydig cells of the testis, steroidogenic cells confined to the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex, and progesterone-producing cells of the placenta [27].
  • From this and previous data, we conclude that the increases of estradiol secretion associated with the follicular maturation and corpus luteum formation represent a major component of the feedback signal in the modulation of cyclic gonadotropin release occasioned in a large measure by the augmented pituitary sensitivity to LRF [28].
  • Stepwise regression analysis indicated that variations in the levels of progestin binding accounted for 17% (P less than 0.01) and variations in the levels of triamcinolone binding for 3% (P = 0.05) of the variation observed in PAA [29].
  • Administration of E or P to ovariectomized females induced C/EBPbeta expression in both uterine epithelium and stroma, showing a dual regulation of this gene by these hormones [30].
  • We found no evidence that human or fish mPRs regulate cAMP production or MAPK (ERK1/2 or p38) activation upon progesterone stimulation [31].
  • In RMG, membrane-impermeable progesterone conjugate induced calcium influx and subsequent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PKC and ERK-1/2 [32].
  • The work illustrates the relevancy of the mouse model for understanding endometrial vascular remodeling during the menstrual cycle and in response to the clinically important progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 [33].
  • In mammals, the Purkinje cell actively synthesizes progesterone de novo from cholesterol during neonatal life when cerebellar neuronal circuit formation occurs [34].

Gene context of Pregnenedione

  • CDK4(-/-) mice survived embryogenesis and showed growth retardation and reproductive dysfunction associated with hypoplastic seminiferous tubules in the testis and perturbed corpus luteum formation in the ovary [35].
  • VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation [36].
  • RNA blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the PGF receptor transcripts are abundantly expressed in luteal cells of corpus luteum and in a lesser amount in kidney, heart, stomach, and lung [37].
  • The current study investigates the activation in vivo and regulation of the expression of components of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during gonadotropin-induced formation and development of the rat corpus luteum, employing a sequential PMSG/human CG (hCG) treatment paradigm [38].
  • However, we observed that LIF can only partially resume implantation in P4-primed, delayed implanting mice in the absence of estrogen, suggesting LIF induction is one of many functions that are executed by estrogen for implantation [39].
  • Progesterone inhibits the induction of TNF synthesis by viral infection and virus or gp-120-induced TNF transcription [40].
  • Mining this informational resource for rapidly induced genes, we identified "inhibitor of differentiation 4" (Id4) as a new molecular target acutely induced by progesterone exposure [41].
  • Using siRNA-mediated knockdown of both DKK1 and FOXO1, progesterone inhibition of Wnt signaling was partly circumvented [42].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pregnenedione


  1. Mice deficient of Lats1 develop soft-tissue sarcomas, ovarian tumours and pituitary dysfunction. St John, M.A., Tao, W., Fei, X., Fukumoto, R., Carcangiu, M.L., Brownstein, D.G., Parlow, A.F., McGrath, J., Xu, T. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Glioblastoma growth inhibited in vivo by a dominant-negative Flk-1 mutant. Millauer, B., Shawver, L.K., Plate, K.H., Risau, W., Ullrich, A. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Corpus luteum hemorrhage. Cause of acute abdominal pain in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. Waxman, M., Baird, G.J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Hormonal status of breast cancer. III. Further analysis of ovarian-adrenal dysfunction. Kodama, M., Kodama, T., Miura, S., Yoshida, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Local prostaglandin F2 alpha injection for termination of ectopic pregnancy. Lindblom, B., Hahlin, M., Källfelt, B., Hamberger, L. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Progesterone: therapeutic opportunities for neuroprotection and myelin repair. Schumacher, M., Guennoun, R., Stein, D.G., De Nicola, A.F. Pharmacol. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Preterm birth without progesterone withdrawal in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase hypomorphic mice. Roizen, J.D., Asada, M., Tong, M., Tai, H.H., Muglia, L.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  8. Plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas (Lama glama). Adam, C.L., Moir, C.E., Shiach, P. Vet. Rec. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of prolonged luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy on follicular maturation, ovulation and corpus luteum function in amenorrhoeic women with anorexia nervosa. Nillius, S.J., Wide, L. Ups. J. Med. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation. Gimpl, G., Fahrenholz, F. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanisms controlling the function and life span of the corpus luteum. Niswender, G.D., Juengel, J.L., Silva, P.J., Rollyson, M.K., McIntush, E.W. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Luteolysis: a neuroendocrine-mediated event. McCracken, J.A., Custer, E.E., Lamsa, J.C. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Female infertility in mice lacking connexin 37. Simon, A.M., Goodenough, D.A., Li, E., Paul, D.L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Sex steroid regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in normal and inflamed colon in the female rat. Houdeau, E., Moriez, R., Leveque, M., Salvador-Cartier, C., Waget, A., Leng, L., Bueno, L., Bucala, R., Fioramonti, J. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro modulation of primate coronary vascular muscle cell reactivity by ovarian steroid hormones. Minshall, R.D., Miyagawa, K., Chadwick, C.C., Novy, M.J., Hermsmeyer, K. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Simultaneous and sequential determinations of steroid hormone receptors in human breast cancer. Influence of intervening therapy. Jakesz, R., Dittrich, C., Hanusch, J., Kolb, R., Lenzhofer, R., Moser, K., Rainer, H., Reiner, G., Schemper, M., Spona, J. Ann. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. The matrix metalloproteinase system: changes, regulation, and impact throughout the ovarian and uterine reproductive cycle. Curry, T.E., Osteen, K.G. Endocr. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Equine chorionic gonadotropin. Murphy, B.D., Martinuk, S.D. Endocr. Rev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Many transcription factors interact synergistically with steroid receptors. Schüle, R., Muller, M., Kaltschmidt, C., Renkawitz, R. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Surrogate embryo transfer combined with estrogen-progesterone therapy in monkeys. Implantation, gestation, and delivery without ovaries. Hodgen, G.D. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Hyperprolactinaemia and luteal insufficiency. Seppälä, M., Ranta, T., Hirvonen, E. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue binds to luteal cells and inhibits progesterone production. Clayton, R.N., Harwood, J.P., Catt, K.J. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Interferon-like sequence of ovine trophoblast protein secreted by embryonic trophectoderm. Imakawa, K., Anthony, R.V., Kazemi, M., Marotti, K.R., Polites, H.G., Roberts, R.M. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Implication of absence of HCG-like gonadotrophin in the blastocyst for control of corpus luteum function in pregnant rabbit. Sundaram, K., Connell, K.G., Passantino, T. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth in vivo. Kim, K.J., Li, B., Winer, J., Armanini, M., Gillett, N., Phillips, H.S., Ferrara, N. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Dynamic changes in inhibin messenger RNAs in rat ovarian follicles during the reproductive cycle. Woodruff, T.K., D'Agostino, J., Schwartz, N.B., Mayo, K.E. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Transcriptional activation of mouse retrotransposons in vivo: specific expression in steroidogenic cells in response to trophic hormones. Schiff, R., Itin, A., Keshet, E. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Direct evidence of estrogen modulation of pituitary sensitivity to luteinizing hormone-releasing factor during the menstrual cycle. Wang, C.F., Yen, S.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Plasminogen-activating activity: association with steroid binding by cytosols of human breast cancers. Sutherland, D.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. C/EBPbeta is a critical mediator of steroid hormone-regulated cell proliferation and differentiation in the uterine epithelium and stroma. Mantena, S.R., Kannan, A., Cheon, Y.P., Li, Q., Johnson, P.F., Bagchi, I.C., Bagchi, M.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Human homologs of the putative G protein-coupled membrane progestin receptors (mPRalpha, beta, and gamma) localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are not activated by progesterone. Krietsch, T., Fernandes, M.S., Kero, J., Lösel, R., Heyens, M., Lam, E.W., Huhtaniemi, I., Brosens, J.J., Gellersen, B. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Membrane-initiated effects of progesterone on calcium dependent signaling and activation of VEGF gene expression in retinal glial cells. Swiatek-De Lange, M., Stampfl, A., Hauck, S.M., Zischka, H., Gloeckner, C.J., Deeg, C.A., Ueffing, M. Glia (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Progesterone, but not estrogen, stimulates vessel maturation in the mouse endometrium. Girling, J.E., Lederman, F.L., Walter, L.M., Rogers, P.A. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Progesterone biosynthesis and action in the developing neuron. Tsutsui, K. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted disruption of CDK4 delays cell cycle entry with enhanced p27(Kip1) activity. Tsutsui, T., Hesabi, B., Moons, D.S., Pandolfi, P.P., Hansel, K.S., Koff, A., Kiyokawa, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development. Kamat, B.R., Brown, L.F., Manseau, E.J., Senger, D.R., Dvorak, H.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Cloning and expression of a cDNA for mouse prostaglandin F receptor. Sugimoto, Y., Hasumoto, K., Namba, T., Irie, A., Katsuyama, M., Negishi, M., Kakizuka, A., Narumiya, S., Ichikawa, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Developmental regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated kinases-2 and -3 (MAPKAPK-2/-3) in vivo during corpus luteum formation in the rat. Maizels, E.T., Mukherjee, A., Sithanandam, G., Peters, C.A., Cottom, J., Mayo, K.E., Hunzicker-Dunn, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Dysregulation of EGF family of growth factors and COX-2 in the uterus during the preattachment and attachment reactions of the blastocyst with the luminal epithelium correlates with implantation failure in LIF-deficient mice. Song, H., Lim, H., Das, S.K., Paria, B.C., Dey, S.K. Mol. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Progesterone inhibits HIV-1 replication in human trophoblast cells through inhibition of autocrine tumor necrosis factor secretion. Muñoz, L.D., Serramía, M.J., Fresno, M., Muñoz-Fernández, M.A. J. Infect. Dis. (2007) [Pubmed]
  41. Transcriptional response of the murine mammary gland to acute progesterone exposure. Fernandez-Valdivia, R., Mukherjee, A., Creighton, C.J., Buser, A.C., DeMayo, F.J., Edwards, D.P., Lydon, J.P. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  42. Progesterone inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in normal endometrium and endometrial cancer. Wang, Y., Hanifi-Moghaddam, P., Hanekamp, E.E., Kloosterboer, H.J., Franken, P., Veldscholte, J., van Doorn, H.C., Ewing, P.C., Kim, J.J., Grootegoed, J.A., Burger, C.W., Fodde, R., Blok, L.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
  43. Isoimmunization against human chorionic gonadotropin with conjugates of processed beta-subunit of the hormone and tetanus toxoid. Talwar, G.P., Sharma, N.C., Dubey, S.K., Salahuddin, M., Das, C., Ramakrishnan, S., Kumar, S., Hingorani, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  44. Cloning of a carboxyl-terminal isoform of the prostanoid FP receptor. Pierce, K.L., Bailey, T.J., Hoyer, P.B., Gil, D.W., Woodward, D.F., Regan, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  45. Regulation of pro-gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by sex steroids in the brain of male and female rats. Toranzo, D., Dupont, E., Simard, J., Labrie, C., Couet, J., Labrie, F., Pelletier, G. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  46. Ovarian steroid regulation of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) binding, distribution, and function in female macaques. Lu, N.Z., Eshleman, A.J., Janowsky, A., Bethea, C.L. Mol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
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