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Gene Review

TIR  -  toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AtTN10, F3N23.13, F3N23_13, TIR-nucleotide binding site family 10, TN10, ...
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Disease relevance of TIR

  • We tested the ability of TIR and coiled-coil-class (also known as leucine-zipper-class) R genes to confer resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato or Peronospora parasitica in SA-depleted (NahG) and nim1/npr1 plants [1].

High impact information on TIR

  • In addition, a truncated RPS4-Ler transgene encoding the putative TIR and NBS domains was not sufficient to confer resistance, suggesting that the combined presence of regular and alternative RPS4 transcripts is necessary for function [2].
  • P2 is a member of a small multigene family and encodes a protein with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains and an N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) homology domain, as well as a C-terminal non-LRR (CNL) domain of approximately 150 amino acids [3].
  • They are now known to occur in several organisms, with the most TIR proteins being found in ARABIDOPSIS: our analysis of the sequenced Arabidopsis genome has revealed the presence of at least 135 proteins containing TIR domains [4].
  • Taken together, these results indicate that YkB acts to block AUX/IAA protein degradation upstream of AXR and TIR, links a shared element upstream of AUX/IAA protein stability to auxin-induced cell division/elongation and to auxin-binding protein 1, and provides a new tool to dissect auxin signal transduction [5].
  • The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain is found in one of the two large families of homologues of plant disease resistance proteins (R proteins) in Arabidopsis and other dicotyledonous plants [6].

Biological context of TIR

  • Several novel types of TIR-domain-containing proteins are found in Arabidopsis that are not found in other genomes [4].
  • Deletion analyses of RPS4 domains show the TIR domain is required for the HR phenotype [7].
  • These data are consistent with the hypothesis that at least in Arabidopsis, SA accumulation is necessary for the majority of R-gene-triggered resistance, while the role of NIM1/NPR in race-specific resistance is limited to resistance to P. parasitica mediated by TIR-class R genes [1].
  • With one exception (GAV-3), the deduced amino acid sequences of strawberry RGAs showed strong similarity to TIR (Toll Interleukin I Receptor)-type R genes from Arabidopsis, tobacco and flax, suggesting the existence of common ancestors [8].

Other interactions of TIR

  • Incomplete splicing of the RPS4 mRNA was observed, which may give rise to truncated protein products consisting mainly of the TIR and NBS domains [9].


  1. Role of salicylic acid and NIM1/NPR1 in race-specific resistance in arabidopsis. Rairdan, G.J., Delaney, T.P. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. RPS4-mediated disease resistance requires the combined presence of RPS4 transcripts with full-length and truncated open reading frames. Zhang, X.C., Gassmann, W. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Six amino acid changes confined to the leucine-rich repeat beta-strand/beta-turn motif determine the difference between the P and P2 rust resistance specificities in flax. Dodds, P.N., Lawrence, G.J., Ellis, J.G. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Toll and interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins in plants: a genomic perspective. Jebanathirajah, J.A., Peri, S., Pandey, A. Trends Plant Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Yokonolide B, a novel inhibitor of auxin action, blocks degradation of AUX/IAA factors. Hayashi, K., Jones, A.M., Ogino, K., Yamazoe, A., Oono, Y., Inoguchi, M., Kondo, H., Nozaki, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. TIR-X and TIR-NBS proteins: two new families related to disease resistance TIR-NBS-LRR proteins encoded in Arabidopsis and other plant genomes. Meyers, B.C., Morgante, M., Michelmore, R.W. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of RPS4 in tobacco induces an AvrRps4-independent HR that requires EDS1, SGT1 and HSP90. Zhang, Y., Dorey, S., Swiderski, M., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and diversity analysis of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) from cultivated and wild strawberries. Martínez Zamora, M.G., Castagnaro, A.P., Díaz Ricci, J.C. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The Arabidopsis RPS4 bacterial-resistance gene is a member of the TIR-NBS-LRR family of disease-resistance genes. Gassmann, W., Hinsch, M.E., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
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