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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Oomycetes


High impact information on Oomycetes

  • In a screen for suppressors of npr1-5-based salicylic acid (SA) insensitivity, we isolated a semidominant gain-of-function mutation, designated ssi4, that confers constitutive expression of several PR (pathogenesis-related) genes, induces SA accumulation, triggers programmed cell death, and enhances resistance to bacterial and oomycete pathogens [4].
  • RPP8 confers resistance to an oomycete pathogen, Peronospora parasitica [5].
  • In the Arabidopsis accession Wassilewskija, the RPP1 region on chromosome 3 contains four genetically linked recognition specificities, conditioning resistance to different isolates of the biotrophic oomycete Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) [6].
  • Elicitins and lipid-transfer proteins are small cysteine-rich lipid-binding proteins secreted by oomycetes and plant cells, respectively, that share some structural and functional properties [7].
  • We report here that one of two Achlya H3 histones (H3.1) and also the oomycete histone alpha appear to be highly phosphorylated with heat shock [8].

Biological context of Oomycetes


Anatomical context of Oomycetes


Associations of Oomycetes with chemical compounds

  • Phytophthora sojae (Kaufmann and Gerdemann) is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) plants [16].
  • Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as the potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pathogen Phytophthora infestans, secrete a diverse family of serine protease inhibitors of the Kazal family [17].
  • By contrast, cryptogein, a sterol carrier protein from the Oomycete Phytophtora cryptogea, greatly increased absorption [18].
  • Kanosamine was highly inhibitory to growth of plant-pathogenic oomycetes and moderately inhibitory to certain fungi and inhibited few bacterial species tested [19].
  • The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes [20].

Gene context of Oomycetes

  • These features classify RPS4 as a member of the TIR-NBS-LRR R gene family founded by N, L6 and RPP5, which determine resistance to viral, fungal and oomycete pathogens, respectively [21].
  • A functional role for PCC1 in plant defence was demonstrated since plants overexpressing PCC1 are resistant against normally virulent oomycetes [22].
  • Furthermore, the mos6-1 single mutant exhibited enhanced disease susceptibility to a virulent oomycete pathogen [23].
  • GSII cDNA sequences were obtained from two species of oomycetes by polymerase chain reaction amplification [24].
  • Nematodes, amoebas, ciliates, apicomplexans, and oomycetes express an alternative DBP with the SCP-2 domain directly connected to the D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oomycetes


  1. Genetics of zwittermicin a production by Bacillus cereus. Emmert, E.A., Klimowicz, A.K., Thomas, M.G., Handelsman, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus. Kiryu, Y., Shields, J.D., Vogelbein, W.K., Kator, H., Blazer, V.S. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Target range of zwittermicin A, an aminopolyol antibiotic from Bacillus cereus. Silo-Suh, L.A., Stabb, E.V., Raffel, S.J., Handelsman, J. Curr. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. A gain-of-function mutation in an Arabidopsis Toll Interleukin1 receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat type R gene triggers defense responses and results in enhanced disease resistance. Shirano, Y., Kachroo, P., Shah, J., Klessig, D.F. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Members of the Arabidopsis HRT/RPP8 family of resistance genes confer resistance to both viral and oomycete pathogens. Cooley, M.B., Pathirana, S., Wu, H.J., Kachroo, P., Klessig, D.F. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Three genes of the Arabidopsis RPP1 complex resistance locus recognize distinct Peronospora parasitica avirulence determinants. Botella, M.A., Parker, J.E., Frost, L.N., Bittner-Eddy, P.D., Beynon, J.L., Daniels, M.J., Holub, E.B., Jones, J.D. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. From elicitins to lipid-transfer proteins: a new insight in cell signalling involved in plant defence mechanisms. Blein, J.P., Coutos-Thévenot, P., Marion, D., Ponchet, M. Trends Plant Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in chromatin and the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins during heat shock of Achlya ambisexualis. Pekkala, D., Heath, B., Silver, J.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Cell cycle regulator Cdc14 is expressed during sporulation but not hyphal growth in the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Ah Fong, A.M., Judelson, H.S. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of two different hsp70 transcript populations in steroid hormone-induced fungal development. Silver, J.C., Brunt, S.A., Kyriakopoulou, G., Borkar, M., Nazarian-Armavil, V. Dev. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure and expression of a gene encoding heat-shock protein Hsp70 from the Oomycete fungus Bremia lactucae. Judelson, H.S., Michelmore, R.W. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of hsp90 and hsp70 genes during antheridiol-induced hyphal branching in the oomycete Achlya ambisexualis. Brunt, S.A., Borkar, M., Silver, J.C. Fungal Genet. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. A beta4 integrin-like protein co-localises with a phosphotyrosine containing protein in the oomycete Achlya bisexualis: inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation slows tip growth. Chitcholtan, K., Garrill, A. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Ca(2+)-dependent polarization of axis establishment in the tip-growing organism, Saprolegnia ferax, by gradients of the ionophore A23187. Hyde, G.J., Heath, I.B. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Laboratory studies to assess the risk of development of resistance to zoxamide. Young, D.H., Spiewak, S.L., Slawecki, R.A. Pest Manag. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative analysis of expressed sequences in Phytophthora sojae. Qutob, D., Hraber, P.T., Sobral, B.W., Gijzen, M. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. A Second Kazal-like protease inhibitor from Phytophthora infestans inhibits and interacts with the apoplastic pathogenesis-related protease P69B of tomato. Tian, M., Benedetti, B., Kamoun, S. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of sterol uptake in leaf tissues of sugar beet. Rossard, S., Bonmort, J., Guinet, F., Ponchet, M., Roblin, G. Planta (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Production of kanosamine by Bacillus cereus UW85. Milner, J.L., Silo-Suh, L., Lee, J.C., He, H., Clardy, J., Handelsman, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Mattinen, L., Tshuikina, M., Mäe, A., Pirhonen, M. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The Arabidopsis RPS4 bacterial-resistance gene is a member of the TIR-NBS-LRR family of disease-resistance genes. Gassmann, W., Hinsch, M.E., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. PCC1: a merging point for pathogen defence and circadian signalling in Arabidopsis. Sauerbrunn, N., Schlaich, N.L. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. An importin alpha homolog, MOS6, plays an important role in plant innate immunity. Palma, K., Zhang, Y., Li, X. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Evolution of glutamine synthetase in heterokonts: evidence for endosymbiotic gene transfer and the early evolution of photosynthesis. Robertson, D.L., Tartar, A. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Fusion and fission, the evolution of sterol carrier protein-2. Edqvist, J., Blomqvist, K. J. Mol. Evol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of fosetyl-A1 on peroxidase from grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cells. López-Serrano, M., Ferrer, M.A., Ros Barceló, A., Pedreño, M.A. European journal of histochemistry : EJH. (1995) [Pubmed]
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