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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

External Fixators

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Disease relevance of External Fixators

  • Fifteen pediatric femoral fractures in 14 patients were treated with external fixation using the EBI Orthofix unilateral external fixator [1].
  • Repair was staged by firstly removing all implants, secondly treating the osteomyelitis with appropriate antibiotics while spanning the cortical-deficient fracture site with a Kirschner external fixator, and finally rigid fixation of the fracture with incorporation of an ethylene oxide-sterilised intercalary cortical allo-implant [2].
  • The Colles Fracture Plate (Biomet, Inc, Warsaw, Indiana) can be used to treat any comminuted Colles fracture for which an external fixator is considered proper management [3].
  • We carried out a clinical study to verify the potential of this protein in fresh tibial closed fractures, using OP-1 associated with osteosynthesis by means of a monolateral external fixator [4].

High impact information on External Fixators

  • METHODS: Forty consecutive elderly female patients who had a pertrochanteric fracture were randomized to be treated with either fixation with a 135 degrees four-hole sliding hip screw (Group A) or an external fixation device with hydroxyapatite-coated pins (Group B) [5].
  • Control subjects, who had not received a Norian SRS injection, underwent closed reduction and application of a cast or external fixator for six to eight weeks [6].
  • We systemically administered alendronate to rats fitted with external fixators [7].
  • RESULTS: The Ilizarov with carbon fiber rings, Richards Hex-Fix, and Large Synthes External Fixator had <1 kg of magnetic attraction at all three locations [8].
  • RESULTS: The administration of TGF-beta1 did not alter callus size, mechanical properties, or the distribution of tissues in the callus of fractures that were stabilized in locked external fixators [9].

Anatomical context of External Fixators

  • METHODS: Mice tail discs between the ninth and 10th caudal vertebrae were compressed in vivo for 7 days with static axial loads using external fixators [10].

Associations of External Fixators with chemical compounds


Gene context of External Fixators

  • Mechanical performance of external fixators with wires for the treatment of bone fractures--Part II: Wire tension and slippage [16].
  • Four calcanei, which were massively destroyed as a result of blasting injuries from land mines, and 18 severely comminuted calcaneal fractures with bony defects (in one patient, both feet), also from land mines, were treated using a circular external fixator for reconstruction by osteogenic distraction [17].
  • Examples of such implants include the DCS/DHS implant system, the self-tapping screw, the cannulated screw, and the pinless external fixator [18].
  • The method is demonstrated with the Orthofix DAF unilateral external fixator, for which a mathematical stiffness matrix is defined using experimental measurements in six degrees of freedom [19].
  • Static and fatigue tests of the standard Orthofix unilateral external fixator (Orthofix SRL, Verona, Italy) were performed [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of External Fixators


  1. External fixation of pediatric femoral fractures. Davis, T.J., Topping, R.E., Blanco, J.S. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Allo-implant reconstruction of a femoral fracture following osteomyelitis. Fox, S.M., Machon, R.G., Burbidge, H.M. New Zealand veterinary journal. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Use of an internal fixator device to treat comminuted fractures of the distal radius: report of a technique. Becton, J.L., Colborn, G.L., Goodrich, J.A. Am J. Orthop. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Healing of fresh tibial fractures with OP-1. A preliminary report. Maniscalco, P., Gambera, D., Bertone, C., Rivera, F., Crainz, E., Urgelli, S. Acta bio-medica de L'Ateneo parmense : organo della Società di medicina e scienze naturali di Parma. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Dynamic hip screw compared with external fixation for treatment of osteoporotic pertrochanteric fractures. A prospective, randomized study. Moroni, A., Faldini, C., Pegreffi, F., Hoang-Kim, A., Vannini, F., Giannini, S. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Norian SRS cement compared with conventional fixation in distal radial fractures. A randomized study. Cassidy, C., Jupiter, J.B., Cohen, M., Delli-Santi, M., Fennell, C., Leinberry, C., Husband, J., Ladd, A., Seitz, W.R., Constanz, B. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Alendronate inhibits bone resorption at the bone-screw interface. Miyaji, T., Nakase, T., Azuma, Y., Shimizu, N., Uchiyama, Y., Yoshikawa, H. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The magnetic attraction of lower extremity external fixators in an MRI suite. Davison, B.L., Cantu, R.V., Van Woerkom, S. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Interaction between active motion and exogenous transforming growth factor Beta during tibial fracture repair. Park, S.H., O'Connor, K.M., McKellop, H. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Micro-computed tomography evaluation of trabecular bone structure on loaded mice tail vertebrae. Issever, A.S., Walsh, A., Lu, Y., Burghardt, A., Lotz, J.C., Majumdar, S. Spine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model. DeJong, E.S., DeBerardino, T.M., Brooks, D.E., Nelson, B.J., Campbell, A.A., Bottoni, C.R., Pusateri, A.E., Walton, R.S., Guymon, C.H., McManus, A.T. The Journal of trauma. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Three-dimensional analysis of cricoarytenoid joint motion. Wang, R.C. Laryngoscope (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in osseous correction after proximal tibial osteotomy: radiostereometry of closed- and open-wedge osteotomy in 33 patients. Magyar, G., Toksvig-Larsen, S., Lindstrand, A. Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Computer assisted pelvic surgery: registration based on a modified external fixator. Hüfner, T., Geerling, J., Kfuri, M., Gänsslen, A., Citak, M., Kirchhoff, T., Sott, A.H., Krettek, C. Comput. Aided Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The use of methylmethacrylate as an external fixator in children and adolescents. Demetriades, D., Nikolaides, N., Filiopoulos, K., Hager, J. Journal of pediatric orthopedics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Mechanical performance of external fixators with wires for the treatment of bone fractures--Part II: Wire tension and slippage. Delprete, C., Gola, M.M. Journal of biomechanical engineering. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of complex calcaneal fractures with bony defects from land mine blast injuries with a circular external fixator. Gür, E., Ateşalp, S., Başbozkurt, M., Aydoğan, N., Erler, K. Foot & ankle international / American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society [and] Swiss Foot and Ankle Society. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Instrumentation and techniques in equine fracture fixation. Auer, J.A., Watkins, J.P. Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. A mathematical stiffness matrix for characterising mechanical performance of the Orthofix DAF. Gardner, T.N., Weemaes, M. Medical engineering & physics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanical performance of the standard Orthofix external fixator. Chao, E.Y., Hein, T.J. Orthopedics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Cellular interactions and bone healing responses to a novel porous tricalcium phosphate bone graft material. Fredericks, D.C., Bobst, J.A., Petersen, E.B., Nepola, J.V., Dennis, J.E., Caplan, A.I., Burgess, A.V., Overby, R.J., Schulz, O.H. Orthopedics. (2004) [Pubmed]
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