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Disease relevance of Byelarus


High impact information on Byelarus

  • Childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus [6].
  • RESULTS: The env sequences derived from eight individuals infected in Russia and Belarus belong to subtype A (one), B (four), C (two), and D (one) [1].
  • PATIENTS: A cohort of children infected after exposure to nonsterile needles during the epidemic in 1988-1989 in southern Russia (Elista, n = 12 and Rostov-on-Don, n = 10), and eight HIV-seropositive subjects from Belarus (Minsk), infected via sexual (n = 7) and parenteral (n = 1) infection [7].
  • STUDY DESIGN: In this multinational (European Community-funded) trial, a series of 3,175 consecutive female patients were examined for HPV status (by Hybrid Capture II) at six clinics in Russia, Belarus, and Latvia [8].
  • The ret/PTC1 rearrangement is a common feature of Chernobyl-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas from Belarus [9].

Biological context of Byelarus

  • Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation [10].
  • p53 polymorphisms in Russia and Belarus: correlation of the 2-1-1 haplotype frequency with longitude [11].

Associations of Byelarus with chemical compounds

  • The 1986 Chernobyl accident initiated a major and early increase in childhood thyroid cancer that resulted from ingestion of iodine-131 (131I) by young children living in the most heavily contaminated areas of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia [12].
  • As a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, exposure to radioactive cesium is still a concern in the contaminated regions of Belarus [13].
  • Russia and Belarus were "conservative" having a lower level of total consumption and using lesser quantities of penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, quinolones, carbapenems but greater amounts of aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol [14].
  • Determination of irradiated reactor uranium in soil samples in Belarus using 236U as irradiated uranium tracer [15].
  • The "Atlas of caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" was prepared within the framework of the Joint Study Project 6 (JSP6) of the collaborative programme on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident between the European Commission and the Ministries responsible for Chernobyl affairs in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine [16].

Gene context of Byelarus

  • In Drosophila melanogaster, two new variants affecting the activity of phenoloxidase were found in natural populations at Gomel in Belorussia and at Krasnodar in Russia [17].
  • Childhood leukemia (ICD 204-208 [1]) incidence rates in the different regions of Belarus are reported for a period before and after the Chernobyl accident (1982-1994) [18].
  • The input of the model includes an extensive data set of the (137)Cs activity per unit area deposited during the Chernobyl accident, the rainfall data for different regions of Belarus, the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio in the deposit and the start of the grazing period in Belarus in April/May 1986 [19].
  • In 2002 and 2004, peaks of 137Cs were detected in two residents from Gomel, which was heavily contaminated by the CNPP accident, one from Minsk (Belarus) and one from Kiev (Ukraine), but another resident from Minsk showed no 137Cs peaks [20].
  • The results of the EURAD (EURopean Acid Deposition) model, predicting the deposition patterns of 131I and 137Cs in Belarus and Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident, are discussed [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Byelarus


  1. Identification of an env G subtype and heterogeneity of HIV-1 strains in the Russian Federation and Belarus. Bobkov, A., Cheingsong-Popov, R., Garaev, M., Rzhaninova, A., Kaleebu, P., Beddows, S., Bachmann, M.H., Mullins, J.I., Louwagie, J., Janssens, W. AIDS (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. High prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in Ukrainian and Belarussian post-Chernobyl thyroid papillary carcinomas: a strong correlation between RET/PTC3 and the solid-follicular variant. Thomas, G.A., Bunnell, H., Cook, H.A., Williams, E.D., Nerovnya, A., Cherstvoy, E.D., Tronko, N.D., Bogdanova, T.I., Chiappetta, G., Viglietto, G., Pentimalli, F., Salvatore, G., Fusco, A., Santoro, M., Vecchio, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. p53 mutations in childhood thyroid tumours from Belarus and in thyroid tumours without radiation history. Smida, J., Zitzelsberger, H., Kellerer, A.M., Lehmann, L., Minkus, G., Negele, T., Spelsberg, F., Hieber, L., Demidchik, E.P., Lengfelder, E., Bauchinger, M. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Epidemiology of childhood cancer in Belarus: review of data 1978-1994, and discussion of the new Belarusian Childhood Cancer Registry. van Hoff, J., Averkin, Y.I., Hilchenko, E.I., Prudyvus, I.S. Stem Cells (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Relationship between caesium (137Cs) load, cardiovascular symptoms, and source of food in 'Chernobyl' children -- preliminary observations after intake of oral apple pectin. Bandazhevskaya, G.S., Nesterenko, V.B., Babenko, V.I., Yerkovich, T.V., Bandazhevsky, Y.I. Swiss medical weekly : official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus. Beral, V., Reeves, G. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in the former Soviet Union: analysis of env V3 sequences and their correlation with epidemiologic data. Bobkov, A., Garaev, M.M., Rzhaninova, A., Kaleebu, P., Pitman, R., Weber, J.N., Cheingsong-Popov, R. AIDS (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Sexual habits and human papillomavirus infection among females in three New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. Syrjänen, S., Shabalova, I., Petrovichev, N., Kozachenko, V., Zakharova, T., Pajanidi, J., Podistov, J., Chemeris, G., Sozaeva, L., Lipova, E., Tsidaeva, I., Ivanchenko, O., Pshepurko, A., Zakharenko, S., Nerovjna, R., Kljukina, L., Erokhina, O., Branovskaja, M., Nikitina, M., Grujnberga, V., Grujnberg, A., Juschenko, A., Johansson, B., Tosi, P., Cintorino, M., Santopietro, R., Syrjänen, K. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The ret/PTC1 rearrangement is a common feature of Chernobyl-associated papillary thyroid carcinomas from Belarus. Pisarchik, A.V., Ermak, G., Fomicheva, V., Kartel, N.A., Figge, J. Thyroid (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident. Dubrova, Y.E., Nesterov, V.N., Krouchinsky, N.G., Ostapenko, V.A., Vergnaud, G., Giraudeau, F., Buard, J., Jeffreys, A.J. Mutat. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. p53 polymorphisms in Russia and Belarus: correlation of the 2-1-1 haplotype frequency with longitude. Khrunin, A.V., Tarskaia, L.A., Spitsyn, V.A., Lylova, O.I., Bebyakova, N.A., Mikulich, A.I., Limborska, S.A. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The Russian radiation legacy: its integrated impact and lessons. Goldman, M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in Belarussian children relates to urban living rather than radiation dose after the chernobyl accident: a pilot study. Tondel, M., Arynchyn, A., Jönsson, P., Persson, B., Tagesson, C. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The usage of antibiotics in Russia and some countries in Eastern Europe. Stratchounski, L., Bedenkov, A., Hryniewicz, W., Krcmery, V., Ludwig, E., Semenov, V. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Determination of irradiated reactor uranium in soil samples in Belarus using 236U as irradiated uranium tracer. Mironov, V.P., Matusevich, J.L., Kudrjashov, V.P., Boulyga, S.F., Becker, J.S. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Mapping 137Cs deposition: data validation methods and data interpretation. Dubois, G., De Cort, M. Journal of environmental radioactivity. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic variants affecting phenoloxidase activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Asada, N. Biochem. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident. Ivanov, E.P., Tolochko, G.V., Shuvaeva, L.P., Becker, S., Nekolla, E., Kellerer, A.M. Radiation and environmental biophysics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. A radioecological model for thyroid dose reconstruction of the Belarus population following the Chernobyl accident. Kruk, J.E., Pröhl, G., Kenigsberg, J.I. Radiation and environmental biophysics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Morita, N., Takamura, N., Ashizawa, K., Shimasaki, T., Yamashita, S., Okumura, Y. Radiation protection dosimetry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Physical transport and chemical and biological processes in agricultural systems. Voigt, G. Ciba Found. Symp. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer in children of Belarus: a case-control study. Astakhova, L.N., Anspaugh, L.R., Beebe, G.W., Bouville, A., Drozdovitch, V.V., Garber, V., Gavrilin, Y.I., Khrouch, V.T., Kuvshinnikov, A.V., Kuzmenkov, Y.N., Minenko, V.P., Moschik, K.V., Nalivko, A.S., Robbins, J., Shemiakina, E.V., Shinkarev, S., Tochitskaya, S.I., Waclawiw, M.A. Radiat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Childhood thyroid cancer: comparison of Japan and Belarus. Shirahige, Y., Ito, M., Ashizawa, K., Motomura, T., Yokoyama, N., Namba, H., Fukata, S., Yokozawa, T., Ishikawa, N., Mimura, T., Yamashita, S., Sekine, I., Kuma, K., Ito, K., Nagataki, S. Endocr. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
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