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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor 3- and CC chemokine receptor 4-independent manner.

BACKGROUND: Chemokines are believed to contribute to selective cell recruitment. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is a CC chemokine that causes chemotaxis of dendritic cells, monocytes, and activated natural killer cells. MDC binds to CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) but not to CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR6, or CCR7. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the in vitro activity of MDC on human eosinophils by using chemotaxis and calcium flux assays. METHODS: Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of allergic donors, and chemotactic activity of MDC and other CC chemokines was compared in microchemotaxis chamber assays. The role of CCR3 in these assays was determined by using a CCR3-blocking antibody. Measurements of cytosolic Ca++ mobilization were performed by using fura-2AM labeling, with eosinophils and cell lines transfected with CCR3 or CCR4. Eosinophil expression of CCR3 and CCR4 mRNA was determined by using RT-PCR. RESULTS: MDC (0.1 to 100 nmol/L) caused dose-dependent chemotaxis of purified human eosinophils (maximum approximately 3-fold control). Compared with other CC chemokines, the potency and efficacy for eosinophil chemotaxis were similar for MDC and eotaxin but were less than that observed for RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4, and eotaxin-2. Although MDC can act by means of CCR4, RT-PCR analysis failed to reveal CCR4 mRNA in eosinophils. Effects of MDC on eosinophils was also independent of CCR3, as a blocking mAb to CCR3 failed to inhibit MDC-induced chemotaxis. Furthermore, CCR3-transfected human embryonic kidney cells labeled with Fura-2AM exhibited a rapid rise in intracellular free calcium after stimulation with eotaxin, eotaxin-2, or MCP-4, but not with MDC. Eosinophils cultured for 72 hours in 10 ng/mL IL-5 also demonstrated increased intracellular free calcium after stimulation with eotaxin-2 or MCP-4, but not with up to 100 nmol/L MDC. CONCLUSION: MDC is a CCR3- and CCR4-independent activator of eosinophil chemotaxis, but it does not appear to elicit measurable cytosolic calcium elevations during these responses. MDC appears to act by means of another receptor in addition to CCR4 and may therefore contribute to eosinophil accumulation without working through CCR1 to CCR7.[1]


  1. Macrophage-derived chemokine induces human eosinophil chemotaxis in a CC chemokine receptor 3- and CC chemokine receptor 4-independent manner. Bochner, B.S., Bickel, C.A., Taylor, M.L., MacGlashan, D.W., Gray, P.W., Raport, C.J., Godiska, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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