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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of hexosamine biosynthesis in glucose-mediated up-regulation of lipogenic enzyme mRNA levels: effects of glucose, glutamine, and glucosamine on glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels.

Glucose uptake into adipose and liver cells is known to up-regulate mRNA levels for various lipogenic enzymes such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACC). To determine whether the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) mediates glucose regulation of mRNA expression, we treated primary cultured adipocytes for 18 h with insulin (25 ng/ml) and either glucose (20 mm) or glucosamine (2 mm). A ribonuclease protection assay was used to quantitate mRNA levels for FAS, ACC, and glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPDH). Treatment with insulin and various concentrations of d-glucose increased mRNA levels for FAS (280%), ACC (93%), and GPDH (633%) in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 8-16 mm). Mannose similarly elevated mRNA levels, but galactose and fructose were only partially effective. l-glucose had no effect. Omission of glutamine from the culture medium markedly diminished the stimulatory effect of glucose on mRNA expression. Since glutamine is a crucial amide donor in hexosamine biosynthesis, we interpret these data to mean that glucose flux through the HBP is linked to regulation of lipogenesis through control of gene expression. Further evidence for hexosamine regulation was obtained using glucosamine, which is readily transported into adipocytes where it directly enters the HBP. Glucosamine was 15-30 times more potent than glucose in elevating FAS, ACC, and GPDH mRNA levels (ED50 approximately 0.5 mm). In summary: 1) GPDH, FAS, and ACC mRNA levels are upregulated by glucose; 2) glucose-induced up-regulation requires glutamine; and 3) mRNA levels for lipogenic enzymes are up-regulated by glucosamine. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes mellitus and leads to insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, and dyslipidemia. We postulate that disease pathophysiology may have a common underlying factor, excessive glucose flux through the HBP.[1]


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