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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The antidepressants fluoxetine, idazoxan and phenelzine alter corticotropin-releasing hormone and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels in rat brain: therapeutic implications.

Various classes of antidepressant drugs with distinct pharmacologic actions are differentially effective in the treatment of classic melancholic depression--characterized by pathological hyperarousal and atypical depression--associated with lethargy, hypersomnia, and hyperphagia. All antidepressant agents exert their therapeutic efficacy only after prolonged administration. In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine in rats the effects of short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (8 weeks) administration of 3 different classes of activating antidepressant drugs which tend to be preferentially effective in treating atypical depressions, on the expression of central nervous system genes thought to be dysregulated in major depression. Daily administration (5 mg/kg, i.p.) of the selective 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, and the nonspecific monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitor phenelzine increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels by 70-150% in the locus coeruleus after 2 weeks of drug and by 71-115% after 8 weeks. The 3 drugs decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels by 30-48% in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The decreases occurred at 8 weeks but not at 2 weeks. No consistent change in steroid hormone receptor mRNA levels was seen in the hippocampus with the 3 drugs, but fluoxetine and idazoxan increased the level of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA, respectively, after 8 weeks of drug administration. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary and plasma adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) levels were not altered after 2 or 8 weeks of drug treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


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