The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Sleep Stages

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Sleep Stages

  • Of the 153 children who took at least one dose of diazepam, 39 percent had ataxia, lethargy, or irritability or at least one other moderate side effect that was reversed after a reduction in the dose [1].
  • The central nervous dysfunctions of lethargy, fever and anorexia are manifestations of sepsis that seem to be mediated by increased cytokine production [2].
  • Treatment was discontinued in 28 patients because of dose-limiting toxicity consisting of a syndrome of malaise, fatigue, and lethargy; recurrent reduction in creatinine clearance of 50% or more; or axonal neuropathy [3].
  • The treated animals show normalization of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and lethargy [4].
  • RAPA-treated mice had no clinical (e.g., weight loss, diarrhea, lethargy) or histologic evidence of classical acute or chronic GVHD but did develop a clinical-pathological syndrome consisting of ulcerative dermatitis, bile duct proliferation, and a nondestructive peribronchiolar pulmonary infiltration [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sleep Stages


High impact information on Sleep Stages

  • The median interval between the onset of major symptoms (vomiting and lethargy, seizures, and coma) and diagnosis was 16 months (range, 1 to 142) [11].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the chronology of age-related changes in sleep duration and quality (sleep stages) in healthy men and whether concomitant alterations occur in GH and cortisol levels [12].
  • Mutants were isolated by their ability to suppress lethargy of an unc-64 syntaxin mutant that restricts neurotransmitter release [13].
  • Sleep stage was graded by continuous electroencephalogram, and systemic glucose turnover was estimated by isotope dilution [14].
  • When cisapride was given, there was frequent irregular contractile activity, faster gastric emptying, and no symptoms of lethargy [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sleep Stages

  • Tryptophan loading produced lethargy and drowsiness within 30 minutes of ingestion under all loading conditions [16].
  • The intrinsic and network properties of thalamic reticular (RE) neurons, which release the potent inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), endow them with oscillatory properties within the frequency range of sleep spindles (7-15 Hz), a hallmark brain rhythm that characterizes early sleep stages [17].
  • Side effects for aminoglutethimide (including lethargy, rash, and depression) were more common than for tamoxifen, and 7% of aminoglutethimide-treated patients had to discontinue treatment because of these compared with 0% on tamoxifen [18].
  • Three patients, who received all 18 doses of suramin per protocol, developed severe, but not dose-limiting, malaise, fatigue, and lethargy [19].
  • Thirty to 48 hr after the initial acetaminophen dose, the animals begin to exhibit symptoms of encephalopathy and progress from lethargy to the inability to maintain posture and then coma, seizures and death [20].

Biological context of Sleep Stages


Anatomical context of Sleep Stages


Gene context of Sleep Stages


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sleep Stages


  1. A controlled trial of diazepam administered during febrile illnesses to prevent recurrence of febrile seizures. Rosman, N.P., Colton, T., Labazzo, J., Gilbert, P.L., Gardella, N.B., Kaye, E.M., Van Bennekom, C., Winter, M.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Upregulation of RGS7 may contribute to tumor necrosis factor-induced changes in central nervous function. Benzing, T., Brandes, R., Sellin, L., Schermer, B., Lecker, S., Walz, G., Kim, E. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Suramin, an active drug for prostate cancer: interim observations in a phase I trial. Eisenberger, M.A., Reyno, L.M., Jodrell, D.I., Sinibaldi, V.J., Tkaczuk, K.H., Sridhara, R., Zuhowski, E.G., Lowitt, M.H., Jacobs, S.C., Egorin, M.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Long-term correction of obesity and diabetes in genetically obese mice by a single intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding mouse leptin. Murphy, J.E., Zhou, S., Giese, K., Williams, L.T., Escobedo, J.A., Dwarki, V.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. In vivo inhibition of cytokine responsiveness and graft-versus-host disease mortality by rapamycin leads to a clinical-pathological syndrome discrete from that observed with cyclosporin A. Blazar, B.R., Taylor, P.A., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., Sehgal, S., Vallera, D.A. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Hyponatremia in psychogenic polydipsia. Hariprasad, M.K., Eisinger, R.P., Nadler, I.M., Padmanabhan, C.S., Nidus, B.D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on interleukin-6, growth hormone, cortisol, and melatonin levels in humans. Redwine, L., Hauger, R.L., Gillin, J.C., Irwin, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Controlled trial of bright light for nonseasonal major depressive disorders. Kripke, D.F., Mullaney, D.J., Klauber, M.R., Risch, S.C., Gillin, J.C. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Corticospinal excitability in human sleep as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Grosse, P., Khatami, R., Salih, F., Kühn, A., Meyer, B.U. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Twenty-four-hour secretory patterns of growth hormone, prolactin, and cortisol in narcolepsy. Higuchi, T., Takahashi, Y., Takahashi, K., Niimi, Y., Miyasita, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Natural history of symptomatic partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Rowe, P.C., Newman, S.L., Brusilow, S.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Age-related changes in slow wave sleep and REM sleep and relationship with growth hormone and cortisol levels in healthy men. Van Cauter, E., Leproult, R., Plat, L. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. SLO-1 potassium channels control quantal content of neurotransmitter release at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Wang, Z.W., Saifee, O., Nonet, M.L., Salkoff, L. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Diminished brain glucose metabolism is a significant determinant for falling rates of systemic glucose utilization during sleep in normal humans. Boyle, P.J., Scott, J.C., Krentz, A.J., Nagy, R.J., Comstock, E., Hoffman, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Absent postprandial duodenal motility in a child with cystic fibrosis. Correction of the symptoms and manometric abnormality with cisapride. Hyman, P.E. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Short-term and repetitive administration of oral tryptophan in normal men. Effects on blood tryptophan, serotonin, and kynurenine concentrations. Yuwiler, A., Brammer, G.L., Morley, J.E., Raleigh, M.J., Flannery, J.W., Geller, E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. The reticular nucleus revisited: intrinsic and network properties of a thalamic pacemaker. Fuentealba, P., Steriade, M. Prog. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Tamoxifen versus aminoglutethimide versus combined tamoxifen and aminoglutethimide in the treatment of advanced breast carcinoma. Smith, I.E., Harris, A.L., Morgan, M., Gazet, J.C., McKinna, J.A. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Development and validation of a pharmacokinetically based fixed dosing scheme for suramin. Reyno, L.M., Egorin, M.J., Eisenberger, M.A., Sinibaldi, V.J., Zuhowski, E.G., Sridhara, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. An improved model of acetaminophen-induced fulminant hepatic failure in dogs. Kelly, J.H., Koussayer, T., He, D.E., Chong, M.G., Shang, T.A., Whisennand, H.H., Sussman, N.L. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Diurnal rhythm of plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin and its relationship to sleep stages and plasma rhythms of cortisol and prolactin. Dent, R.R., Guilleminault, C., Albert, L.H., Posner, B.I., Cox, B.M., Goldstein, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of nadolol on blood pressure, sleep efficiency, and sleep stages. Kales, A., Bixler, E.O., Vela-Bueno, A., Cadieux, R.J., Manfredi, R.L., Bitzer, S., Kantner, T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of thyroxine on sleep in the rat. Eastman, C.I., Rechtschaffen, A. Sleep. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence for fractal correlation properties in variations of peripheral arterial tone during REM sleep. Dvir, I., Adler, Y., Freimark, D., Lavie, P. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Antidiarrheal activity of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist SK&F 35886. Fondacaro, J.D., McCafferty, G.P., Kolpak, D.C., Smith, P.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative neurotoxicities of amphotericin B and its mono-methyl ester derivative in rats. Reuhl, K.R., Vapiwala, M., Ryzlak, M.T., Schaffner, C.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Apoptosis in lymphoid and parenchymal cells during sepsis: findings in normal and T- and B-cell-deficient mice. Hotchkiss, R.S., Swanson, P.E., Cobb, J.P., Jacobson, A., Buchman, T.G., Karl, I.E. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Subcortical cerebral infarctions in sickle cell trait. Reyes, M.G. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of caffeine on peripheral chemoreceptor activity in premature neonates: interaction with sleep stages. Chardon, K., Bach, V., Telliez, F., Cardot, V., Tourneux, P., Leke, A., Libert, J.P. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Pancreatic A cell response to arginine in the hibernating hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Hoo-Paris, R., Hamsany, M., Castex, C., Sutter, B.C., Assan, R. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Kinesin light chains are essential for axonal transport in Drosophila. Gindhart, J.G., Desai, C.J., Beushausen, S., Zinn, K., Goldstein, L.S. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Plasma indolethylamine-n-methyltransferase activity and growth hormone level during sleep: a pilot study. Strahilevitz, M., Othmer, E., Narasimhachari, N., Othmer, S.C., Jacobs, L.S. Biol. Psychiatry (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion in concert with a G(o)/G(q) signaling network. Robatzek, M., Thomas, J.H. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects. Dzaja, A., Dalal, M.A., Himmerich, H., Uhr, M., Pollmächer, T., Schuld, A. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular and clinical analysis of Japanese patients with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL) deficiency. Muroi, J., Yorifuji, T., Uematsu, A., Shigematsu, Y., Onigata, K., Maruyama, H., Nobutoki, T., Kitamura, A., Nakahata, T. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus following cerebral angiography. Vickrey, B.G., Bahls, F.H. Ann. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Influence of age on the clinical presentation of prolactinomas in male patients. Delgrange, E., Maiter, D., Donckier, J., Tourniaire, J. Gerontology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Reversible seizures and mental status changes in a dialysis patient on isoniazid preventive therapy. Asnis, D.S., Bhat, J.G., Melchert, A.F. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection following renal transplantation in a cat. Griffin, A., Newton, A.L., Aronson, L.R., Brown, D.C., Hess, R.S. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Comparison of conventional nighttime with automatic or manual daytime CPAP titration in unselected sleep apnea patients: study of the usefulness of daytime titration studies. Lloberes, P., Rodríguez, B., Roca, A., Sagales, M.T., de la Calzada, M.D., Giménez, S., Romero, O., Sampol, G. Respiratory medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities