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Gene Review

Maoa  -  monoamine oxidase A

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: MAO-A, Monoamine oxidase type A
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Disease relevance of Maoa


Psychiatry related information on Maoa


High impact information on Maoa

  • Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A and B) are the major neurotransmitter-degrading enzymes in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues [10].
  • MAO A and B cDNAs from human, rat, and bovine species have been cloned and their deduced amino acid sequences compared [10].
  • The genes that encode MAO A and B are closely aligned on the X chromosome (Xp11.23), and have identical exon-intron organization [10].
  • MAO-A is also undetectable in neurons containing 5-HT, a good substrate for MAO-A [11].
  • Furthermore, although the inhibition of DA reuptake by cocaine and nomifensine caused a short-term prolongation of DA responses, the combined inhibition of MAO A and B enzymes caused a long-term prolongation of DA effects [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Maoa


Biological context of Maoa


Anatomical context of Maoa


Associations of Maoa with chemical compounds

  • Clorgyline inhibited MAO-A by 95%, with 30% inhibition of MAO-B [23].
  • These results show for the first time the existence of a dopamine-dependent MAO-A regulation involving D(2)-like receptors, inhibition of the cAMP-PKA pathway, and an ex novo enzyme synthesis [19].
  • Chronic treatment with the MAO-B inhibitors reduced striatal MAO-B activity by 90%, with 15% (TVP-1012) or 40% (deprenyl) inhibition of MAO-A [23].
  • Thus, while most of the condensed pyridazines were reversible inhibitors of MAO-B with little or no MAO-A effects, the pyrimidine derivatives proved to be reversible and selective MAO-A inhibitors [24].
  • The increase in MAO-A protein was preceded by an augmentation of MAO-A mRNA that was prevented by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D [19].

Physical interactions of Maoa

  • A relatively high density of [3H]RO41-1049 binding to MAO-A enzyme was present in all regions of the rat kidney (160-210 fmol/mg) compared with a low density of [3H]RO19-6327 binding to MAO-B (< 25 fmol/mg) [25].

Regulatory relationships of Maoa

  • MAO B was markedly inhibited with the oral dose of 1 mg/kg without any alteration of MAO A, and the inhibition almost did not exceed 24 h [26].

Other interactions of Maoa

  • A single mutation in which Phe-208 in MAO A was substituted by the corresponding residue of Ile in MAO B was sufficient to convert the A-type substrate selectivity, and the reverse was exactly the case [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Maoa


  1. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) binds with high affinity to a beta-carboline binding site located on monoamine oxidase type A in rat brain. May, T. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidase mediates receptor-independent cardiomyocyte apoptosis by serotonin and postischemic myocardial injury. Bianchi, P., Kunduzova, O., Masini, E., Cambon, C., Bani, D., Raimondi, L., Seguelas, M.H., Nistri, S., Colucci, W., Leducq, N., Parini, A. Circulation (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. MPTP-induced duodenal ulcers in rat. Prevention by reuptake blockers for serotonin and norepinephrine, but not dopamine. Keshavarzian, A., Wibowo, A., Gordon, J.H., Fields, J.Z. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- and 1-methyl-4-(2'-ethylphenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced toxicity in PC12 cells: role of monoamine oxidase A. Basma, A.N., Heikkila, R.E., Nicklas, W.J., Giovanni, A., Geller, H.M. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Monoamine oxidase in rat and bovine endocrine tissues. Lenzen, S., Freisinger-Treichel, M., Panten, U. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Studies of selective and reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Mann, J.J., Aarons, S.F., Frances, A.J., Brown, R.D. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on rat brain monoamine oxidases. Thakkar, M., Mallick, B.N. Neuroscience (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Promoting effect and recovery activity from physical stress of the fruit of Morus alba. Hwang, K.H., Kim, Y.K. Biofactors (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcohol consumption alters monoamine oxidase activities in brain structures: relation to ethanol craving. Zimatkin, S.M., Tsydik, V.F., Lelevich, V.V. Cas. Lek. Cesk. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular characterization of monoamine oxidases A and B. Abell, C.W., Kwan, S.W. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Monoamine oxidase: distribution in the cat brain studied by enzyme- and immunohistochemistry: recent progress. Kitahama, K., Maeda, T., Denney, R.M., Jouvet, M. Prog. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Monoamine oxidase inhibition causes a long-term prolongation of the dopamine-induced responses in rat midbrain dopaminergic cells. Mercuri, N.B., Scarponi, M., Bonci, A., Siniscalchi, A., Bernardi, G. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Selective effects of neonatal hypothyroidism on monoamine oxidase activities in the rat brain. Vaccari, A., Biassoni, R., Timiras, P.S. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy. Löscher, W., Lehmann, H., Teschendorf, H.J., Traut, M., Gross, G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Differences in the structures of monoamine oxidases A and B in rat clonal cell lines. Cawthon, R.M., Breakefield, X.O. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Sulfur-substituted alpha-alkyl phenethylamines as selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitors: biological activities, CoMFA analysis, and active site modeling. Gallardo-Godoy, A., Fierro, A., McLean, T.H., Castillo, M., Cassels, B.K., Reyes-Parada, M., Nichols, D.E. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, protects NGF-differentiated PC12 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation. Abu-Raya, S., Blaugrund, E., Trembovler, V., Shilderman-Bloch, E., Shohami, E., Lazarovici, P. J. Neurosci. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The oxidation of dopamine and epinine by the two forms of monoamine oxidase from rat liver. Strolin Benedetti, M., Sanson, G., Bona, L., Gallina, M., Persiani, S., Tipton, K.F. J. Neural Transm. Suppl. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Substrate-dependent regulation of MAO-A in rat mesangial cells: involvement of dopamine D2-like receptors. Pizzinat, N., Marchal-Victorion, S., Maurel, A., Ordener, C., Bompart, G., Parini, A. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Styrene inhibits monoamine oxidase A, but not monoamine oxidase B in monkey brain mitochondria. Egashira, T., Takayama, F., Sakai, K., Yamanaka, Y. Toxicol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. A and B forms of monoamine oxidase within the monoaminergic neurons of the rat brain. Fagervall, I., Ross, S.B. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential effects of angiotensin II and eledoisin on monoamine oxidase A and B activities in rat brain. Tomaszewicz, M., Micossi, L.G., Bielarczyk, H., Luszawska, D., Santarelli, I., Szutowicz, A. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of long-term treatment with selective monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors on dopamine release from rat striatum in vivo. Lamensdorf, I., Youdim, M.B., Finberg, J.P. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase-B by condensed pyridazines and pyrimidines: effects of lipophilicity and structure-activity relationships. Altomare, C., Cellamare, S., Summo, L., Catto, M., Carotti, A., Thull, U., Carrupt, P.A., Testa, B., Stoeckli-Evans, H. J. Med. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. [3H]Rilmenidine-labelled imidazoline-receptor binding sites co-localize with [3H]2-(benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline-labelled imidazoline-receptor binding sites and monoamine oxidase-B in rabbit, but not rat, kidney. King, P.R., Suzuki, S., Hosseini, A.R., Iakovidis, D., Nero, T.L., Jackman, G.P., Louis, W.J., Gundlach, A.L. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. 5-[4-(benzyloxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one derivatives and related analogues: new reversible, highly potent, and selective monamine oxidase type B inhibitors. Mazouz, F., Gueddari, S., Burstein, C., Mansuy, D., Milcent, R. J. Med. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. A key amino acid responsible for substrate selectivity of monoamine oxidase A and B. Tsugeno, Y., Ito, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of rat monoamine oxidase A complexed with clorgyline. Ma, J., Kubota, F., Yoshimura, M., Yamashita, E., Nakagawa, A., Ito, A., Tsukihara, T. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of moclobemide on rat brain monoamine oxidase A and B: comparison with harmaline and clorgyline. Gerardy, J. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Development of N-[3-(2',4'-dichlorophenoxy)-2-18F-fluoropropyl]-N-methylpropargylamine (18F-fluoroclorgyline) as a potential PET radiotracer for monoamine oxidase-A. Mukherjee, J., Yang, Z.Y. Nucl. Med. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential substrate specificity of monoamine oxidase in the rat heart and renal cortex. Guimarães, J.T., Vindis, C., Soares-da-Silva, P., Parini, A. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
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