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Gene Review

Pomc  -  proopiomelanocortin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Corticotropin-lipotropin, POMC, Pomc1, Pomc2, Pro-opiomelanocortin, ...
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Disease relevance of Pomc


Psychiatry related information on Pomc


High impact information on Pomc

  • It has also been found to cleave some Phe and Arg bonds in various substrates such as beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and substance P [6].
  • Dexamethasone administration to intact or adrenalectomized rats results in the rapid (within 30 minutes) disappearance of silver grains over the nuclei of corticotrophs in the anterior lobe, suggesting that POMC gene transcription had been inhibited [7].
  • Regulation of pro-opiomelanocortin gene transcription in individual cell nuclei [7].
  • The testicular POMC messenger RNA is comparable in length to amygdala and midbrain POMC messenger RNA and appears to be at least 200 nucleotides shorter than POMC messenger RNA found in the hypothalamus and anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland [8].
  • These results suggest that local synthesis of POMC occurs in the testis [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pomc


Biological context of Pomc

  • Pomc gene delivery decreased visceral adiposity and induced uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue in aged rats [1].
  • Agonists for melanocortin 4 (MC-4) receptors such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a product of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), reduce food intake, whereas hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a MC-4 receptor antagonist that increases food intake [2].
  • Furthermore, changes in NPY and POMC agree with current models of food intake behavior, but they are opposite to their acute effects on peripheral energy metabolism and thermogenesis [13].
  • The developmental dynamics of this cell population and its response to CRH in vitro in the rat suggest a relationship of these cells with the embryonic branching of the POMC and alphaGSU cell lineages and their mutually opposite developmental course during early postnatal life [14].
  • Changes in expression of NPY, AgRP or POMC alone could not account for the diurnal changes in intake and their alteration by lactation [15].

Anatomical context of Pomc


Associations of Pomc with chemical compounds

  • Improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity were observed on day 36 but not day 20 after Pomc gene delivery [1].
  • Serum NEFA and triglyceride levels were also diminished by rAAV-Pomc treatment [1].
  • We examined by means of RT-PCR and immunostaining whether glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (alphaGSU) could be coexpressed with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in vivo and under pressure of CRH in vitro [14].
  • In the first study effects of ADX and corticosterone replacement on POMC and AGRP expression were determined [20].
  • Levels of transcripts for mRNA for both CRF and POMC were markedly reduced after the treatment, but there was a rapid return to control values for CRF mRNA within 18 h of steroid withdrawal [21].

Physical interactions of Pomc


Regulatory relationships of Pomc

  • Systemic administration of a specific anti-CRH antiserum inhibited the ACTH response to 5-HTP and fluoxetine and prevented the 5-HTP and fluoxetine-induced POMC mRNA response in the anterior pituitary lobe [24].
  • Among these, a dense cluster of small neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-expressing neurons is located in its ventromedial subdivision and a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neuron population in its ventrolateral part [25].
  • These results suggest that alpha-MSH, a cleaved peptide from pro-opiomelanocortin of which synthesis is stimulated by leptin, may be the pivotal neuropeptide in the brain mediating the leptin's stimulatory influence on PRL secretion [26].
  • The proportion of POMC neurones expressing MC3-R mRNA was significantly higher in the most rostral (43.5%) than in the most posterior part of the arcuate nucleus (8.2%) [27].
  • We used double label in situ hybridization and computerized image analysis to test the hypothesis that POMC neurons coexpress the leptin receptor [5].

Other interactions of Pomc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pomc


  1. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin gene delivery ameliorates obesity and glucose intolerance in aged rats. Li, G., Zhang, Y., Wilsey, J.T., Scarpace, P.J. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on the hypothalamic melanocortin system and muscle uncoupling protein 3 expression in rats. Havel, P.J., Hahn, T.M., Sindelar, D.K., Baskin, D.G., Dallman, M.F., Weigle, D.S., Schwartz, M.W. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Chronic blockade of the melanocortin 4 receptor subtype leads to obesity independently of neuropeptide Y action, with no adverse effects on the gonadotropic and somatotropic axes. Raposinho, P.D., Castillo, E., d'Alleves, V., Broqua, P., Pralong, F.P., Aubert, M.L. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Fasting-induced increases of arcuate NPY mRNA and plasma corticosterone are blunted in the rat experienced neonatal maternal separation. Kim, H.J., Lee, J.H., Choi, S.H., Lee, Y.S., Jahng, J.W. Neuropeptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Proopiomelanocortin neurons are direct targets for leptin in the hypothalamus. Cheung, C.C., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Amino acid sequence of rat submaxillary tonin reveals similarities to serine proteases. Lazure, C., Leduc, R., Seidah, N.G., Thibault, G., Genest, J., Chrétien, M. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of pro-opiomelanocortin gene transcription in individual cell nuclei. Fremeau, R.T., Lundblad, J.R., Pritchett, D.B., Wilcox, J.N., Roberts, J.L. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization and localization of proopiomelanocortin messenger RNA in the adult rat testis. Pintar, J.E., Schachter, B.S., Herman, A.B., Durgerian, S., Krieger, D.T. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Thyroid hormone-mediated regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat. Shi, Z.X., Levy, A., Lightman, S.L. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Beta-endorphin inhibits hypoglycemia-induced gene expression of corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat hypothalamus. Suda, T., Sato, Y., Sumitomo, T., Nakano, Y., Tozawa, F., Iwai, I., Yamada, M., Demura, H. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Plasma leptin and ghrelin in the neonatal rat: interaction of dexamethasone and hypoxia. Bruder, E.D., Jacobson, L., Raff, H. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. D-2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of pro-opiomelanocortin synthesis in rat intermediate lobe. Abolition by pertussis toxin or activators of adenylate cyclase. Cote, T.E., Felder, R., Kebabian, J.W., Sekura, R.D., Reisine, T., Affolter, H.U. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, and proopiomelanocortin gene expression during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation of rats. Koban, M., Le, W.W., Hoffman, G.E. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A Pituitary Cell Type Coexpressing Messenger Ribonucleic Acid of Proopiomelanocortin and the Glycoprotein Hormone {alpha}-Subunit in Neonatal Rat and Chicken: Rapid Decline with Age and Reappearance in Vitro under Regulatory Pressure of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Rat. Pals, K., Boussemaere, M., Swinnen, E., Vankelecom, H., Denef, C. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Diurnal changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide and SOCS-3 expression: effects of lactation and relationship with serum leptin and food intake. Denis, R.G., Bing, C., Brocklehurst, S., Harrold, J.A., Vernon, R.G., Williams, G. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of CRF, POMC and MC4R gene expression after electrical foot shock stress in the rat amygdala and hypothalamus. Yamano, Y., Yoshioka, M., Toda, Y., Oshida, Y., Chaki, S., Hamamoto, K., Morishima, I. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Cholecystokinin-mediated suppression of feeding involves the brainstem melanocortin system. Fan, W., Ellacott, K.L., Halatchev, I.G., Takahashi, K., Yu, P., Cone, R.D. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Leptin differentially regulates NPY and POMC neurons projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area. Elias, C.F., Aschkenasi, C., Lee, C., Kelly, J., Ahima, R.S., Bjorbaek, C., Flier, J.S., Saper, C.B., Elmquist, J.K. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. gp130 signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons mediates the acute anorectic response to centrally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor. Janoschek, R., Plum, L., Koch, L., Münzberg, H., Diano, S., Shanabrough, M., Müller, W., Horvath, T.L., Brüning, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of adrenalectomy on AGRP, POMC, NPY and CART gene expression in the basal hypothalamus of fed and fasted rats. Savontaus, E., Conwell, I.M., Wardlaw, S.L. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Stress responsiveness of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNAs following high-dose glucocorticoid treatment and withdrawal in the rat. Harbuz, M.S., Nicholson, S.A., Gillham, B., Lightman, S.L. J. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Interaction between glucocorticoids and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the regulation of the pituitary CRH receptor in vivo in the rat. Ochedalski, T., Rabadan-Diehl, C., Aguilera, G. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Glucocorticoid receptor binding to a specific DNA sequence is required for hormone-dependent repression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene transcription. Drouin, J., Trifiro, M.A., Plante, R.K., Nemer, M., Eriksson, P., Wrange, O. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Serotonergic stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression. Jørgensen, H., Knigge, U., Kjaer, A., Møller, M., Warberg, J. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Subtypes Y1 and Y2 of the neuropeptide Y receptor are respectively expressed in pro-opiomelanocortin- and neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons of the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Broberger, C., Landry, M., Wong, H., Walsh, J.N., Hökfelt, T. Neuroendocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Pivotal roles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the melanocortin 4 receptor in leptin stimulation of prolactin secretion in rats. Watanobe, H., Schiöth, H.B., Izumi, J. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Melanocortin-3 receptor mRNA expression in pro-opiomelanocortin neurones of the rat arcuate nucleus. Jégou, S., Boutelet, I., Vaudry, H. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Leptin receptor mRNA identifies a subpopulation of neuropeptide Y neurons activated by fasting in rat hypothalamus. Baskin, D.G., Breininger, J.F., Schwartz, M.W. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Young Adult-Specific Hyperphagia in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats is Associated with Leptin Resistance and Elevation of Neuropeptide Y mRNA in the Arcuate Nucleus. Maekawa, F., Fujiwara, K., Kohno, D., Kuramochi, M., Kurita, H., Yada, T. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of agouti-related protein on metabolism and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression. Korner, J., Wissig, S., Kim, A., Conwell, I.M., Wardlaw, S.L. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Evidence for daily rhythms of the expression of proopiomelanocortin, interleukin-1-beta and interleukin-6 in adenopituitaries of male long-evans rats: effect of adjuvant arthritis. Seres, J., Herichová, I., Roman, O., Bornstein, S., Jurcovicová, J. Neuroimmunomodulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Decreased type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA expression in the ventromedial hypothalamus during repeated immobilization stress. Makino, S., Asaba, K., Nishiyama, M., Hashimoto, K. Neuroendocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
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