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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Convergence of genes implicated in Alzheimer's disease on the cerebral cholesterol shuttle: APP, cholesterol, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis.

Polymorphic genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (see ) delineate a clearly defined pathway related to cerebral and peripheral cholesterol and lipoprotein homoeostasis. They include all of the key components of a glia/neurone cholesterol shuttle including cholesterol binding lipoproteins APOA1, APOA4, APOC1, APOC2, APOC3, APOD, APOE and LPA, cholesterol transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, lipoprotein receptors LDLR, LRP1, LRP8 and VLDLR, and the cholesterol metabolising enzymes CYP46A1 and CH25H, whose oxysterol products activate the liver X receptor NR1H2 and are metabolised to esters by SOAT1. LIPA metabolises cholesterol esters, which are transported by the cholesteryl ester transport protein CETP. The transcription factor SREBF1 controls the expression of most enzymes of cholesterol synthesis. APP is involved in this shuttle as it metabolises cholesterol to 7-betahydroxycholesterol, a substrate of SOAT1 and HSD11B1, binds to APOE and is tethered to LRP1 via APPB1, APBB2 and APBB3 at the cytoplasmic domain and via LRPAP1 at the extracellular domain. APP cleavage products are also able to prevent cholesterol binding to APOE. BACE cleaves both APP and LRP1. Gamma-secretase (PSEN1, PSEN2, NCSTN) cleaves LRP1 and LRP8 as well as APP and their degradation products control transcription factor TFCP2, which regulates thymidylate synthase ( TS) and GSK3B expression. GSK3B is known to phosphorylate the microtubule protein tau (MAPT). Dysfunction of this cascade, carved out by genes implicated in Alzheimer's disease, may play a major role in its pathology. Many other genes associated with Alzheimer's disease affect cholesterol or lipoprotein function and/or have also been implicated in atherosclerosis, a feature of Alzheimer's disease, and this duality may well explain the close links between vascular and cerebral pathology in Alzheimer's disease. The definition of many of these genes as risk factors is highly contested. However, when polymorphic susceptibility genes belong to the same signaling pathway, the risk associated with multigenic disease is better related to the integrated effects of multiple polymorphisms of genes within the same pathway than to variants in any single gene [Wu, X., Gu, J., Grossman, H.B., Amos, C.I., Etzel, C., Huang, M., Zhang, Q., Millikan, R.E., Lerner, S., Dinney, C.P., Spitz, M.R., 2006. Bladder cancer predisposition: a multigenic approach to DNA-repair and cell-cycle-control genes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78, 464-479.]. Thus, the fact that Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes converge on a clearly defined signaling network has important implications for genetic association studies.[1]


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