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Gene Review

VLDLR  -  very low density lipoprotein receptor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CARMQ1, CHRMQ1, VLDL receptor, VLDL-R, VLDLRCH, ...
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Disease relevance of VLDLR

  • A soluble VLDLR fragment encompassing the eight complement type repeats and representing the N-terminal part of the receptor was then expressed in the baculovirus system; both the shed protein and the recombinant soluble VLDLR bind minor group viruses and inhibit viral infection of HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner [1].
  • The regulation of VLDLR expression was studied in JEG-3 and BeWo choriocarcinoma cells, two trophoblast-derived cell lines [2].
  • Functional candidate genes in age-related macular degeneration: significant association with VEGF, VLDLR, and LRP6 [3].
  • By immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that VLDLR is mainly expressed by the epithelial cancer cells in these carcinomas [4].
  • RESULTS: Immunoreactive VLDLR was abundantly present in human fetal intestinal epithelial and gastric adenocarcinoma cells [5].

Psychiatry related information on VLDLR


High impact information on VLDLR


Chemical compound and disease context of VLDLR

  • The VLDLR variant expressed by epithelial cancer cells could function in the clearance of cell-surface-associated serine proteinase/serpin complexes in breast carcinomas [4].

Biological context of VLDLR


Anatomical context of VLDLR

  • CONCLUSIONS: 1) Abnormal accumulation of LDLR, VLDLR, LRP, and cholesterol within IBM vacuolated muscle fibers suggests novel roles for them in the IBM pathogenesis [14].
  • In addition, VLDLR messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected in villous core endothelial cells and cells appearing to be Hofbauer cells [2].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of human placenta with a specific polyclonal antibody detected VLDLR in syncytiotrophoblast and intermediate trophoblast cells [2].
  • The LRP seems to be mainly responsible for the hepatic uptake of remnant lipoproteins, while the VLDLR, mainly located in adipose tissue and muscle, might target the lipoproteins to these tissues for fatty acid delivery [15].
  • Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the rabbit VLDL receptor cDNA have now been shown to bind or internalize VLDL (d < 1.006 g/ml) isolated from fasted normolipidemic human subjects with lower affinity than WHHL-VLDL or rabbit beta-VLDL [16].

Associations of VLDLR with chemical compounds

  • Insulin (200 mg/L) up-regulated VLDLR message in JEG-3 cells 2-fold, as did the fibrate hypolipidemic drug, clofibric acid [2].
  • The high amino acid sequence homology of the VLDLR between two mammalian species suggests that the receptor plays a fundamental role in lipoprotein metabolism and that energy metabolism mediated by triglyceride utilization may be an evolutionarily highly conserved mechanism [17].
  • VLDL subfractions were separated and classified as heparin binding (VLDLR, apoE rich) or nonbinding (VLDLNR-1 and VLDLNR-2, both apoE poor) [18].
  • With placebo, VLDLR accounted for 41.8% of VLDL in HTG and 49.0% of VLDL in CHLP, reduced to 27.6% and 38.6%, respectively, with gemfibrozil [18].
  • Despite the presence of sterol regulatory element-1-like sequences in the VLDL-receptor gene, the transcription of the gene is not down-regulated by sterols [19].

Physical interactions of VLDLR

  • These studies confirm that the VLDL receptor binds to and mediates the catabolism of LpL and uPA.PAI-1 complexes [20].
  • The VLDL receptor binds lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein E and consists of five functional domains that resemble the LDL receptor [19].
  • However, the VLDL receptor apparently did not show the increase in affinity and decrease in binding of betaVLDL on cooling to 4 degrees C that was exhibited by the LDL receptor [21].
  • Binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor involves basic residues in the inhibitor [22].
  • Electromobility shift assay was performed to investigate whether the enhanced PAI-1 promoter activity seen in the VLDL receptor overexpressing cells in response to VLDL involved induction of the previously described VLDL-inducible factor(s) binding to the -675 to -653 region of the PAI-1 promoter [23].

Regulatory relationships of VLDLR


Other interactions of VLDLR

  • 2) Expression of LDLR and VLDLR at normal NMJ suggests physiologic roles for them in transsynaptic signaling pathways, increased internalization of lipoproteins there, or both [14].
  • As a receptor for ApoE, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) might be involved in AD pathogenesis [6].
  • These results suggest that CYP17A1 and MTP are susceptibility loci for increased BMD in postmenopausal and premenopausal Japanese women, respectively, and that VLDLR constitutes such a locus in Japanese men [26].
  • Infected fibroblasts that express the VLDL receptor mediate the cellular internalization of 125I-labeled LpL and uPA.PAI-1 complexes, leading to their degradation [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in Reelin protein and mRNA and Dab 1 mRNA and elevations in Reln receptor VLDLR mRNA demonstrate impairments in the Reelin signaling system in autism, accounting for some of the brain structural and cognitive deficits observed in the disorder [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VLDLR


  1. Very-low-density lipoprotein receptor fragment shed from HeLa cells inhibits human rhinovirus infection. Marlovits, T.C., Abrahamsberg, C., Blaas, D. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Localization and regulation of the human very low density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein-E receptor: trophoblast expression predicts a role for the receptor in placental lipid transport. Wittmaack, F.M., Gåfvels, M.E., Bronner, M., Matsuo, H., McCrae, K.R., Tomaszewski, J.E., Robinson, S.L., Strickland, D.K., Strauss, J.F. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional candidate genes in age-related macular degeneration: significant association with VEGF, VLDLR, and LRP6. Haines, J.L., Schnetz-Boutaud, N., Schmidt, S., Scott, W.K., Agarwal, A., Postel, E.A., Olson, L., Kenealy, S.J., Hauser, M., Gilbert, J.R., Pericak-Vance, M.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Breast carcinoma epithelial cells express a very low-density lipoprotein receptor variant lacking the O-linked glycosylation domain encoded by exon 16, but with full binding activity for serine proteinase/serpin complexes and Mr-40,000 receptor-associated protein. Martensen, P.M., Oka, K., Christensen, L., Rettenberger, P.M., Petersen, H.H., Christensen, A., Chan, L., Heegaard, C.W., Andreasen, P.A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Very low-density lipoprotein receptor in fetal intestine and gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Nakamura, Y., Yamamoto, M., Kumamaru, E. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. No association detected between very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Hong Kong Chinese. Chen, L., Baum, L., Ng, H.K., Chan, Y.S., Mak, Y.T., Woo, J., Chiu, H., Pang, C.P. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. VLDL receptor polymorphism, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Helbecque, N., Berr, C., Cottel, D., Fromentin-David, I., Sazdovitch, V., Ricolfi, F., Ducimetière, P., Di Menza, C., Amouyel, P. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a) is internalized and degraded in a process mediated by the VLDL receptor. Argraves, K.M., Kozarsky, K.F., Fallon, J.T., Harpel, P.C., Strickland, D.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Presenilin-I, presenilin-II, and VLDL-R associations in early onset Alzheimer's disease. Brookes, A.J., Howell, W.M., Woodburn, K., Johnstone, E.C., Carothers, A. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Homozygous deletion of the very low density lipoprotein receptor gene causes autosomal recessive cerebellar hypoplasia with cerebral gyral simplification. Boycott, K.M., Flavelle, S., Bureau, A., Glass, H.C., Fujiwara, T.M., Wirrell, E., Davey, K., Chudley, A.E., Scott, J.N., McLeod, D.R., Parboosingh, J.S. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease. Rubinsztein, D.C. Prog. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Membrane receptors for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation. Yi, P.I., Beck, G., Zucker, S. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Specificity of serine proteinase/serpin complex binding to very-low-density lipoprotein receptor and alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein. Kasza, A., Petersen, H.H., Heegaard, C.W., Oka, K., Christensen, A., Dubin, A., Chan, L., Andreasen, P.A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Three lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol in inclusion-body myositis muscle. Jaworska-Wilczynska, M., Wilczynski, G.M., Engel, W.K., Strickland, D.K., Weisgraber, K.H., Askanas, V. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Lipoprotein lipase (EC targeting of lipoproteins to receptors. Beisiegel, U., Heeren, J. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Enhancement of the binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to the very low density lipoprotein receptor by apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase. Takahashi, S., Suzuki, J., Kohno, M., Oida, K., Tamai, T., Miyabo, S., Yamamoto, T., Nakai, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Human very-low-density lipoprotein receptor complementary DNA and deduced amino acid sequence and localization of its gene (VLDLR) to chromosome band 9p24 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oka, K., Tzung, K.W., Sullivan, M., Lindsay, E., Baldini, A., Chan, L. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of gemfibrozil on very-low-density lipoprotein composition and low-density lipoprotein size in patients with hypertriglyceridemia or combined hyperlipidemia. Yang, C.Y., Gu, Z.W., Xie, Y.H., Valentinova, N.V., Yang, M., Yeshurun, D., Quion, J.A., Gotto, A.M. Atherosclerosis (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. The VLDL receptor: wayward brother of the LDL receptor. Jingami, H., Yamamoto, T. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. The very low density lipoprotein receptor mediates the cellular catabolism of lipoprotein lipase and urokinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor type I complexes. Argraves, K.M., Battey, F.D., MacCalman, C.D., McCrae, K.R., Gåfvels, M., Kozarsky, K.F., Chappell, D.A., Strauss, J.F., Strickland, D.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis and properties of the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor and a comparison with the low-density-lipoprotein receptor. Patel, D.D., Forder, R.A., Soutar, A.K., Knight, B.L. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor involves basic residues in the inhibitor. Rodenburg, K.W., Kjoller, L., Petersen, H.H., Andreasen, P.A. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. VLDL activation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression: involvement of the VLDL receptor. Nilsson, L., Gåfvels, M., Musakka, L., Ensler, K., Strickland, D.K., Angelin, B., Hamsten, A., Eriksson, P. J. Lipid Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Association between triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant receptor polymorphisms and lipid traits. Song, J., Hong, S.H., Min, W., Kim, J.Q. Clin. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Evidence of macrophage foam cell formation by very low-density lipoprotein receptor: interferon-gamma inhibition of very low-density lipoprotein receptor expression and foam cell formation in macrophages. Kosaka, S., Takahashi, S., Masamura, K., Kanehara, H., Sakai, J., Tohda, G., Okada, E., Oida, K., Iwasaki, T., Hattori, H., Kodama, T., Yamamoto, T., Miyamori, I. Circulation (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Association of polymorphisms in CYP17A1, MTP, and VLDLR with bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women and men. Yamada, Y., Ando, F., Shimokata, H. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Reelin signaling is impaired in autism. Fatemi, S.H., Snow, A.V., Stary, J.M., Araghi-Niknam, M., Reutiman, T.J., Lee, S., Brooks, A.I., Pearce, D.A. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Twelve receptor molecules attach per viral particle of human rhinovirus serotype 2 via multiple modules. Konecsni, T., Kremser, L., Snyers, L., Rankl, C., Kilár, F., Kenndler, E., Blaas, D. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Variations of very low-density lipoprotein receptor subtype expression in gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells with various differentiations. Chen, T., Wu, F., Chen, F.M., Tian, J., Qu, S. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. The binding ability analysis of the normal VLDL receptor and its mutant. Qu, S., Feng, N., Liu, Z., Zhou, H., Deng, Y., Feng, Z. J. Tongji Med. Univ. (2001) [Pubmed]
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