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Gene Review

APOD  -  apolipoprotein D

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Apo-D, ApoD, Apolipoprotein D
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Disease relevance of APOD


Psychiatry related information on APOD


High impact information on APOD


Chemical compound and disease context of APOD


Biological context of APOD

  • In the Grade-of-membership analysis, APOD genotype frequencies at each SNP site and disease status were used to construct two latent groups: the affected group carried -352 as GG or GA and +45 CC, was often women and enriched in APOE epsilon4 [19].
  • Our data suggest that the risk of AD among African-Americans may be modified by genetic variation in APOD [20].
  • ApoD concentrations, as determined by radioimmunoassay, were significantly increased in the CSF of AD patients (4.23 +/- 1.58 microg/ml) and patients with other pathologies (3.29 +/- 1.35 microg/ml) compared with those in the CSF of normal subjects (1.15 +/- 0.71 microg/ml) [21].
  • To characterize the molecular basis of the protein polymorphism and to identify new mutations, we used a combination of SSCP, DHPLC and DNA sequencing techniques to screen the entire coding region of the APOD gene [22].
  • To investigate the role of the APOD gene in the etiology of schizophrenia, we genotyped three genetic polymorphisms (rs7659, rs2280520 and rs4677695) in a case-control study using subjects from the Chinese population, and altogether 425 cases and 473 controls were analyzed in the study [23].

Anatomical context of APOD


Associations of APOD with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of APOD


Other interactions of APOD


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of APOD


  1. Identification of novel genes associated with astrocytoma progression using suppression subtractive hybridization and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. van den Boom, J., Wolter, M., Blaschke, B., Knobbe, C.B., Reifenberger, G. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased concentrations of cholestanol and apolipoprotein B in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid. Salen, G., Berginer, V., Shore, V., Horak, I., Horak, E., Tint, G.S., Shefer, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum lipids and apolipoproteins in women with breast masses. Lane, D.M., Boatman, K.K., McConathy, W.J. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein D expression in a murine model of singlet oxygen-induced cerebral stroke. Trieu, V.N., Uckun, F.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Apolipoprotein D expression in substantia nigra of Parkinson disease. Ordoñez, C., Navarro, A., Perez, C., Astudillo, A., Martínez, E., Tolivia, J. Histol. Histopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Apolipoprotein D levels are elevated in prefrontal cortex of subjects with Alzheimer's disease: no relation to apolipoprotein E expression or genotype. Thomas, E.A., Laws, S.M., Sutcliffe, J.G., Harper, C., Dean, B., McClean, C., Masters, C., Lautenschlager, N., Gandy, S.E., Martins, R.N. Biol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Differences in neuroanatomical sites of apoD elevation discriminate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thomas, E.A., Dean, B., Scarr, E., Copolov, D., Sutcliffe, J.G. Mol. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Apolipoprotein D in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's dementia. Kalman, J., McConathy, W., Araoz, C., Kasa, P., Lacko, A.G. Neurol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Apolipoprotein D is associated with long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Hansen, T., Hemmingsen, R.P., Wang, A.G., Olsen, L., Timm, S., Søeby, K., Jakobsen, K.D., Fenger, M., Parnas, J., Rasmussen, H.B., Werge, T. Pharmacogenomics J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative gene expression profile analysis of neurofibromatosis 1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas. Gutmann, D.H., Hedrick, N.M., Li, J., Nagarajan, R., Perry, A., Watson, M.A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Apolipoprotein D interacts with the long-form leptin receptor: a hypothalamic function in the control of energy homeostasis. Liu, Z., Chang, G.Q., Leibowitz, S.F. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is accompanied by induction of apolipoprotein D expression. López-Boado, Y.S., Puente, X.S., Alvarez, S., Tolivia, J., Binderup, L., López-Otín, C. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Stimulation of apolipoprotein D secretion by steroids coincides with inhibition of cell proliferation in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Simard, J., Veilleux, R., de Launoit, Y., Haagensen, D.E., Labrie, F. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Apolipoprotein D gene induction by retinoic acid is concomitant with growth arrest and cell differentiation in human breast cancer cells. López-Boado, Y.S., Tolivia, J., López-Otín, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Cellular cholesterol storage in the Niemann-Pick disease type C mouse is associated with increased expression and defective processing of apolipoprotein D. Suresh, S., Yan, Z., Patel, R.C., Patel, Y.C., Patel, S.C. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Additive stimulatory action of glucocorticoids and androgens on basal and estrogen-repressed apolipoprotein-D messenger ribonucleic acid levels and secretion in human breast cancer cells. Simard, J., de Launoit, Y., Haagensen, D.E., Labrie, F. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of the androgen receptor and an androgen-responsive protein, apolipoprotein D, in human breast cancer. Hall, R.E., Aspinall, J.O., Horsfall, D.J., Birrell, S.N., Bentel, J.M., Sutherland, R.L., Tilley, W.D. Br. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Hunter, S.B., Varma, V., Shehata, B., Nolen, J.D., Cohen, C., Olson, J.J., Ou, C.Y. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic variation in apolipoprotein D and Alzheimer's disease. Helisalmi, S., Hiltunen, M., Vepsäläinen, S., Iivonen, S., Corder, E.H., Lehtovirta, M., Mannermaa, A., Koivisto, A.M., Soininen, H. J. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Genetic variation in apolipoprotein D affects the risk of Alzheimer disease in African-Americans. Desai, P.P., Hendrie, H.C., Evans, R.M., Murrell, J.R., DeKosky, S.T., Kamboh, M.I. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased levels of apolipoprotein D in cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampus of Alzheimer's patients. Terrisse, L., Poirier, J., Bertrand, P., Merched, A., Visvikis, S., Siest, G., Milne, R., Rassart, E. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Genetic variation in the apolipoprotein D gene among African blacks and its significance in lipid metabolism. Desai, P.P., Bunker, C.H., Ukoli, F.A., Kamboh, M.I. Atherosclerosis (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of the Association between Apolipoprotein D and Schizophrenia. Zhang, X., Li, D., Duan, S., Duan, Y., Chen, Q., Li, X., Liu, Z., Feng, G., He, L. Neuropsychobiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. The human lacrimal gland synthesizes apolipoprotein D mRNA in addition to tear prealbumin mRNA, both species encoding members of the lipocalin superfamily. Holzfeind, P., Merschak, P., Dieplinger, H., Redl, B. Exp. Eye Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA. Drayna, D., Fielding, C., McLean, J., Baer, B., Castro, G., Chen, E., Comstock, L., Henzel, W., Kohr, W., Rhee, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease. Balbín, M., Freije, J.M., Fueyo, A., Sánchez, L.M., López-Otín, C. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Reduction of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, apolipoprotein D and the Lp(a) lipoprotein with the anabolic steroid stanozolol. Albers, J.J., Taggart, H.M., Applebaum-Bowden, D., Haffner, S., Chesnut, C.H., Hazzard, W.R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Activation of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase by apolipoprotein D: comparison of proteoliposomes containing apolipoprotein D, A-I or C-I. Steyrer, E., Kostner, G.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Distribution of lipids and apolipoproteins in human plasma by vertical spin ultracentrifugation. Campos, E., McConathy, W.J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Apolipoprotein D is a component of compact but not diffuse amyloid-beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease temporal cortex. Desai, P.P., Ikonomovic, M.D., Abrahamson, E.E., Hamilton, R.L., Isanski, B.A., Hope, C.E., Klunk, W.E., DeKosky, S.T., Kamboh, M.I. Neurobiol. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion. Schindler, P.A., Settineri, C.A., Collet, X., Fielding, C.J., Burlingame, A.L. Protein Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Purification of human plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase by covalent chromatography. Holmquist, L. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Separation of free and apolipoprotein D-associated human plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase. Holmquist, L. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression pattern of the lipocalin apolipoprotein D during mouse embryogenesis. Sánchez, D., Ganfornina, M.D., Martínez, S. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
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