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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mechanism of human platelet activation by endotoxic glycolipid-bearing mutant Re595 of Salmonella minnesota.

The mechanism through which human blood platelets interact with gram-negative bacteria with well-defined structural variations in endotoxic lipopolysaccharide was studied. Secretion of 14C-serotonin and aggregation of platelets separated from plasma proteins were observed on challenge with rough mutant Re595 of Salmonella minnesota possessing a glycolipid outer layer composed of Lipid A and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) but lacking heptose phosphate in the core and O-polysaccharide in its outer portion. Both 14C-serotonin secretion and platelet aggregation were concentration-dependent, with a half-maximum response at the ratio of one bacterial colony-forming unit (CFU) to two platelets. The aggregation of human platelets induced by mutant Re595 was divalent cation-dependent and required secretion of ADP and fibrinogen from platelet storage granules because it was inhibited by chelators, by the ADP-splitting enzyme apyrase, and by monospecific antifibrinogen Fab fragments. The synthetic peptide analog of the platelet receptor recognition site on the gamma chain of fibrinogen, gamma 400-411, inhibited platelet aggregation induced by mutant Re595 (IC50 160 mumol/L), whereas serotonin secretion was unaffected. Tetrapeptide, RGDS, analogous to human fibrinogen alpha chain (alpha 572-575) and to the cell adhesion site of fibronectin, also inhibited aggregation induced by mutant Re595 (IC50 60 mumol/L). Secretion of 14C-serotonin was preceded by a very rapid phosphorylation of a platelet protein of mol wt 47,000, which is associated with protein kinase C activation. Myosin light chain ( mol wt 20,000) was also phosphorylated. Both phosphoproteins were dephosphorylated while secretion was reaching maximum. Furthermore, release of 3H-arachidonic acid from platelet phospholipids and generation of thromboxane B2 via the cyclooxygenase pathway were observed. Inhibition of this pathway with acetylsalicylic acid (10(-4) mol/L) or indomethacin (5 X 10(-4) mol/L) reduced 14C-serotonin secretion and platelet aggregation. The role of Lipid A in the interaction of mutant Re595 with human platelets was deduced from the inhibitory effect of the Lipid A-binding protein present in Limulus amebocyte lysate. Likewise, polymyxin B, known to complex with Lipid A, was inhibitory. The reactivity of mutant Re595 toward platelets was attenuated by mild acid hydrolysis, during which KDO was dissociated from the glycolipid, and by alkaline hydrolysis, which breaks ester-linked fatty acids in Lipid A. In contrast to mutant Re595, strain S218 of S minnesota bearing "complete" endotoxic lipopolysaccharide did not induce secretion and aggregation of human platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


  1. Mechanism of human platelet activation by endotoxic glycolipid-bearing mutant Re595 of Salmonella minnesota. Timmons, S., Huzoor-Akbar, n.u.l.l., Grabarek, J., Kloczewiak, M., Hawiger, J. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
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