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Chemical Compound Review

Phytofluene     (6E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E,22E,26 E)-2,6,10,14...

Synonyms: CPD-7408, CHEBI:28129, HMDB02272, LMPR01070299, AC1O5M9O, ...
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Disease relevance of Phytofluene

  • The desaturation of phytoene into phytofluene is an early step in the biosynthetic pathway that in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is mediated by the product of the crtI gene [1].
  • Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema [2].

High impact information on Phytofluene


Anatomical context of Phytofluene

  • Lymphocyte carotenoid concentrations also increased significantly: that of lycopene doubled (P<0.001); that of phytofluene was 1.8-fold higher (P<0.005); that of phytoene was 2.6-fold higher (P<0.005); that of beta-carotene was 1.5-fold higher (P<0.01) [8].
  • METHODS: Normal human dermal fibroblast cell cultures were exposed to either 50 mJ of UVR or to IL-1 and then incubated with various concentrations of either CoQ10, the colorless carotenoids, phytoene and phytofluene, or to combinations of these antioxidants [9].

Associations of Phytofluene with other chemical compounds

  • By means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy we explore the photophysics of two lowest lying singlet excited states in two natural 15-cis-carotenoids, namely phytoene and phytofluene, possessing three and five conjugated double bonds (N), respectively [10].
  • The herbicide norflurazon was added to established cell suspension cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry), to induce the biosynthesis and accumulation of the lycopene precursors, phytoene and phytofluene, in their natural isomeric forms (15-cis-phytoene and two cis-phytofluene isomers) [11].
  • The results suggest that both torulin (C40) and neurosporaxanthin (C35) are formed from the precursors phytoene and phytofluene [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Phytofluene


  1. Carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic bacteria. Genetic characterization of the Rhodobacter capsulatus CrtI protein. Bartley, G.E., Scolnik, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema. Aust, O., Stahl, W., Sies, H., Tronnier, H., Heinrich, U. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Serum testosterone is reduced following short-term phytofluene, lycopene, or tomato powder consumption in f344 rats. Campbell, J.K., Stroud, C.K., Nakamura, M.T., Lila, M.A., Erdman, J.W. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A deficiency at the gene coding for zeta-carotene desaturase characterizes the sunflower non dormant-1 mutant. Conti, A., Pancaldi, S., Fambrini, M., Michelotti, V., Bonora, A., Salvini, M., Pugliesi, C. Plant Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Acyclic carotenoids and their oxidation mixtures inhibit the growth of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Nara, E., Hayashi, H., Kotake, M., Miyashita, K., Nagao, A. Nutrition and cancer. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization and molecular cloning of a flavoprotein catalyzing the synthesis of phytofluene and zeta-carotene in Capsicum chromoplasts. Hugueney, P., Römer, S., Kuntz, M., Camara, B. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. The roles of isomers of phytoene, phytofluene and zeta-carotene in carotenoid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Scenedesmus obliquus. Powls, R., Britton, G. Arch. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Daily intake of a formulated tomato drink affects carotenoid plasma and lymphocyte concentrations and improves cellular antioxidant protection. Porrini, M., Riso, P., Brusamolino, A., Berti, C., Guarnieri, S., Visioli, F. Br. J. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids. Fuller, B., Smith, D., Howerton, A., Kern, D. Journal of cosmetic dermatology (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Photophysical characterization of natural cis-carotenoids. Andersson, P.O., Takaichi, S., Cogdell, R.J., Gillbro, T. Photochem. Photobiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Biosynthesis of 14C-phytoene from tomato cell suspension cultures (Lycopersicon esculentum) for utilization in prostate cancer cell culture studies. Campbell, J.K., Rogers, R.B., Lila, M.A., Erdman, J.W. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of certain nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds on carotenogenesis in Verticillium agaricinum. Valadon, L.R., Mummery, R.S. Microbios (1976) [Pubmed]
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