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Chemical Compound Review

Carotene     (1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17 E)-3,7,12,16...

Synonyms: Solatene, BetaVit, Carotaben, Karotin, Provatene, ...
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Disease relevance of Carotaben


Psychiatry related information on Carotaben


High impact information on Carotaben


Chemical compound and disease context of Carotaben


Biological context of Carotaben


Anatomical context of Carotaben

  • IMPLICATIONS: The mechanism by which beta-carotene might reduce colon cancer incidence does not appear to involve or result in a change in cell proliferation in the normal colonic mucosa as studied in individuals with a history of colonic polyps or cancer [21].
  • Thus retinoic acid (and retinol) inhibited the stimulatory action of interferon (IFN) on monocyte membrane function, and this inhibition was reversed by beta-carotene; beta-carotene alone modestly potentiated IFN in this system [23].
  • When beta-carotene feeding was begun after tumors were already present, it markedly increased the rate of tumor regression. beta-Carotene minimized the virus-induced thymus gland involution that accompanies tumor growth, and this action on the thymus gland was believed to underlie part of beta-carotene's antitumor activity [24].
  • Winn assay revealed that the suppressive effect on tumor growth of immune lymph node cells obtained from Meth A-inoculated beta-carotene-treated mice on day 12 was enhanced dose dependently [25].
  • Mean adipose-tissue beta-carotene concentration was 0.35 microgram/g in cases and 0.42 in controls, with age-adjusted and centre-adjusted mean difference 0.07 microgram/g (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.10) [26].

Associations of Carotaben with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Carotaben

  • The Drosophila ninaB gene encodes a beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase responsible for the centric cleavage of beta-carotene that produces the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin [31].
  • When AtCCD7 and AtCCD8 were co-expressed in a beta-carotene-producing strain of E. coli, the 13-apo-beta-carotenone (C18) was produced [32].
  • The ninaD gene encodes a membrane receptor required for efficient use of beta-carotene [31].
  • On the contrary, GPX activity increased significantly after selenium treatment (P < 0.04 between 3 and 6 mo), whereas a slight increase was found after beta-carotene treatment [33].
  • Beta-carotene dose-dependently quenched (1)O(2)-mediated induction of MMP-1 and MMP-10 [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carotaben

  • Adherence to the prescribed treatment was good, and after one year the actively treated group's median plasma beta carotene level (3021 nmol per liter) was much higher than that of the control group (354 nmol per liter) [35].
  • Beta carotene has been associated with a decreased risk of human cancer in many studies employing dietary questionnaires or blood measurements, and it has had protective effects in some animal models of carcinogenesis [35].
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS--The design was a prospective cohort study using data from the Physicians' Health Study, a randomized trial of aspirin and beta carotene among 22,071 US male physicians aged 40 to 84 years that began in 1982 [36].
  • This dose of beta-carotene has no known toxic effects, but it can increase the serum level by approximately 10-fold. beta-carotene concentration in serum and colonic tissue was quantitated by high-pressure liquid chromatography in samples collected before and after supplementation with beta-carotene or placebo [21].
  • Chemoprevention or antichemoprevention? A salutary warning From the beta-carotene experience [37].


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  3. Comparison of low-dose isotretinoin with beta carotene to prevent oral carcinogenesis. Lippman, S.M., Batsakis, J.G., Toth, B.B., Weber, R.S., Lee, J.J., Martin, J.W., Hays, G.L., Goepfert, H., Hong, W.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
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  6. Dietary beta carotene and lung cancer risk in U.S. nonsmokers. Mayne, S.T., Janerich, D.T., Greenwald, P., Chorost, S., Tucci, C., Zaman, M.B., Melamed, M.R., Kiely, M., McKneally, M.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  8. Midlife dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of late-life incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Laurin, D., Masaki, K.H., Foley, D.J., White, L.R., Launer, L.J. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Probucol and multivitamins in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Multivitamins and Probucol Study Group. Tardif, J.C., Cöté, G., Lespérance, J., Bourassa, M., Lambert, J., Doucet, S., Bilodeau, L., Nattel, S., de Guise, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Omenn, G.S., Goodman, G.E., Thornquist, M.D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M.R., Glass, A., Keogh, J.P., Meyskens, F.L., Valanis, B., Williams, J.H., Barnhart, S., Hammar, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. Hennekens, C.H., Buring, J.E., Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M., Rosner, B., Cook, N.R., Belanger, C., LaMotte, F., Gaziano, J.M., Ridker, P.M., Willett, W., Peto, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with beta carotene. Baranowitz, S.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Rapola, J.M., Virtamo, J., Haukka, J.K., Heinonen, O.P., Albanes, D., Taylor, P.R., Huttunen, J.K. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Premorbid diet and the prognosis of women with breast cancer. Jain, M., Miller, A.B., To, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Importance of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and other phytochemicals in the etiology of lung cancer. Ziegler, R.G., Colavito, E.A., Hartge, P., McAdams, M.J., Schoenberg, J.B., Mason, T.J., Fraumeni, J.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. Zhang, S., Hunter, D.J., Forman, M.R., Rosner, B.A., Speizer, F.E., Colditz, G.A., Manson, J.E., Hankinson, S.E., Willett, W.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. Omenn, G.S., Goodman, G.E., Thornquist, M.D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M.R., Glass, A., Keogh, J.P., Meyskens, F.L., Valanis, B., Williams, J.H., Barnhart, S., Cherniack, M.G., Brodkin, C.A., Hammar, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. beta-Carotene: an unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Burton, G.W., Ingold, K.U. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Klöti, A., Zhang, J., Lucca, P., Beyer, P., Potrykus, I. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. No influence of beta carotene on oxidative DNA damage in male smokers. van Poppel, G., Poulsen, H., Loft, S., Verhagen, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on indices of colonic cell proliferation. Frommel, T.O., Mobarhan, S., Doria, M., Halline, A.G., Luk, G.D., Bowen, P.E., Candel, A., Liao, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Retinoid signaling and activator protein-1 expression in ferrets given beta-carotene supplements and exposed to tobacco smoke. Wang, X.D., Liu, C., Bronson, R.T., Smith, D.E., Krinsky, N.I., Russell, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Human interferon action: reciprocal regulation by retinoic acid and beta-carotene. Rhodes, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Moloney murine sarcoma virus tumors in CBA/J mice: chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic actions of supplemental beta-carotene. Seifter, E., Rettura, G., Padawer, J., Levenson, S.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Augmentation of tumor immunity against syngeneic tumors in mice by beta-carotene. Tomita, Y., Himeno, K., Nomoto, K., Endo, H., Hirohata, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction: the EURAMIC Study. Kardinaal, A.F., Kok, F.J., Ringstad, J., Gomez-Aracena, J., Mazaev, V.P., Kohlmeier, L., Martin, B.C., Aro, A., Kark, J.D., Delgado-Rodriguez, M. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Cost-effective priorities for cancer prevention. Weinstein, M.C. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Serum alpha-tocopherol and subsequent risk of lung cancer among male smokers. Woodson, K., Tangrea, J.A., Barrett, M.J., Virtamo, J., Taylor, P.R., Albanes, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-helicobacter pylori therapy. Correa, P., Fontham, E.T., Bravo, J.C., Bravo, L.E., Ruiz, B., Zarama, G., Realpe, J.L., Malcom, G.T., Li, D., Johnson, W.D., Mera, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Vitamin A, beta-carotene, and the risk of cancer: a prospective study. Paganini-Hill, A., Chao, A., Ross, R.K., Henderson, B.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Drosophila ninaB and ninaD act outside of retina to produce rhodopsin chromophore. Gu, G., Yang, J., Mitchell, K.A., O'Tousa, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. The biochemical characterization of two carotenoid cleavage enzymes from Arabidopsis indicates that a carotenoid-derived compound inhibits lateral branching. Schwartz, S.H., Qin, X., Loewen, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. The enzymatic antioxidant system in blood and glutathione status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: effects of supplementation with selenium or beta-carotene. Delmas-Beauvieux, M.C., Peuchant, E., Couchouron, A., Constans, J., Sergeant, C., Simonoff, M., Pellegrin, J.L., Leng, B., Conri, C., Clerc, M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Beta-carotene inhibits UVA-induced matrix metalloprotease 1 and 10 expression in keratinocytes by a singlet oxygen-dependent mechanism. Wertz, K., Seifert, N., Hunziker, P.B., Riss, G., Wyss, A., Lankin, C., Goralczyk, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. A clinical trial of beta carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous-cell cancers of the skin. The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Greenberg, E.R., Baron, J.A., Stukel, T.A., Stevens, M.M., Mandel, J.S., Spencer, S.K., Elias, P.M., Lowe, N., Nierenberg, D.W., Bayrd, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. A prospective study of cigarette smoking and risk of cataract in men. Christen, W.G., Manson, J.E., Seddon, J.M., Glynn, R.J., Buring, J.E., Rosner, B., Hennekens, C.H. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Chemoprevention or antichemoprevention? A salutary warning From the beta-carotene experience. Paolini, M., Abdel-Rahman, S.Z., Cantelli-Forti, G., Legator, M.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
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