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Gene Review

HCST  -  hematopoietic cell signal transducer

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DAP10, DKFZP586C1522, DNAX-activation protein 10, Hematopoietic cell signal transducer, KAP10, ...
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High impact information on HCST

  • Thus, NKG2D-DAP10 receptor complexes may activate NK and T cell responses against MICA-bearing tumors [1].
  • In natural killer (NK) and T cells, DAP10 was identified as a cell surface adaptor protein in an activating receptor complex with NKG2D, a receptor for the stress-inducible and tumor-associated major histocompatibility complex molecule MICA [1].
  • Human natural killer cells express NKG2D and require the transmembrane adaptor DAP10 to initiate their full cytotoxic activation [2].
  • However, DAP10 has no immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and thus the mechanism of recruiting 'downstream' effector proteins is unclear [2].
  • Despite their similarities, DAP10, DAP12, FcstraightepsilonRIgamma, and CD3zeta form specific receptor complexes with their ligand-binding partners in NK cells and transfectants [3].

Biological context of HCST

  • We show that KAP10, unlike other transmembrane adapter proteins, binds phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase following phosphorylation of a cytoplasmic YINM motif, which results in activation of Akt [4].
  • We have cloned a novel transmembrane adapter protein called KAP10, a approximately 10-kDa protein that is encoded within 100 bp of the DAP12 locus on human chromosome 19 [4].
  • The length of the pig DAP10 cDNA is 465 bp and it contains an open reading frame of 237 bp [5].
  • Genomic organization reveals that pig DAP10 comprises four exons and three introns [5].
  • Pig DAP10 and DAP12 are genetically linked on Chromosome (Chr) 6 at 6q21 in opposite transcriptional orientation, separated by 152 bp [5].

Anatomical context of HCST


Associations of HCST with chemical compounds

  • Pig DAP10 has a conserved aspartic acid in the transmembrane domain, two cysteines in the extracellular domain, and a phophatidylinositol-3 kinase-binding site (YxxM) in the cytoplasmic region [5].
  • Herein, we identify Vav1, a Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor, as a critical signaling mediator downstream of DAP10 in NK cells [7].
  • Single superphosphate (SSP) and North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) which had higher Cd contents (32 and 41 mg kg(-1), respectively) produced higher total soil Cd than diammonium phosphate (DAP-10 mg kg(-1)), Jordan phosphate rock (JPR-5 mg kg(-1)) and control treatments to a depth of 120 mm [8].

Other interactions of HCST


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HCST

  • In Northern blot analysis, DAP10 transcripts were detected predominantly in lymphohematopoietic tissues [5].
  • In situ hybridization analyses of human anagen hair follicles using specific 3'-noncoding sequences of the various KAP10/KAP12 genes revealed mRNA expression of nearly all KAP10 and KAP12 members exclusively in a narrow region of the middle portion of the hair fiber cuticle [10].


  1. An activating immunoreceptor complex formed by NKG2D and DAP10. Wu, J., Song, Y., Bakker, A.B., Bauer, S., Spies, T., Lanier, L.L., Phillips, J.H. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. NKG2D-mediated signaling requires a DAP10-bound Grb2-Vav1 intermediate and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in human natural killer cells. Upshaw, J.L., Arneson, L.N., Schoon, R.A., Dick, C.J., Billadeau, D.D., Leibson, P.J. Nat. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. DAP10 and DAP12 form distinct, but functionally cooperative, receptor complexes in natural killer cells. Wu, J., Cherwinski, H., Spies, T., Phillips, J.H., Lanier, L.L. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Cutting edge: KAP10, a novel transmembrane adapter protein genetically linked to DAP12 but with unique signaling properties. Chang, C., Dietrich, J., Harpur, A.G., Lindquist, J.A., Haude, A., Loke, Y.W., King, A., Colonna, M., Trowsdale, J., Wilson, M.J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of pig immunoreceptor DAP10 and NKG2D. Yim, D., Jie, H.B., Sotiriadis, J., Kim, Y.S., Kim, K.S., Rothschild, M.F., Lanier, L.L., Kim, Y.B. Immunogenetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Silencing human NKG2D, DAP10, and DAP12 reduces cytotoxicity of activated CD8+ T cells and NK cells. Karimi, M., Cao, T.M., Baker, J.A., Verneris, M.R., Soares, L., Negrin, R.S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Vav1 controls DAP10-mediated natural cytotoxicity by regulating actin and microtubule dynamics. Graham, D.B., Cella, M., Giurisato, E., Fujikawa, K., Miletic, A.V., Kloeppel, T., Brim, K., Takai, T., Shaw, A.S., Colonna, M., Swat, W. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Downward movement of cadmium and phosphorus from phosphatic fertilisers in a pasture soil in New Zealand. Loganathan, P., Hedley, M.J. Environ. Pollut. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure and function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I specific receptors expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells. Borrego, F., Kabat, J., Kim, D.K., Lieto, L., Maasho, K., Peña, J., Solana, R., Coligan, J.E. Mol. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Hair keratin associated proteins: characterization of a second high sulfur KAP gene domain on human chromosome 21. Rogers, M.A., Langbein, L., Winter, H., Beckmann, I., Praetzel, S., Schweizer, J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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