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Gene Review

pol  - 

Simian T-lymphotropic virus 2

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Disease relevance of pol

  • Because patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) usually do not have such antibodies even though their cells harbor HTLV-I Tax and/or pol proviral sequences, it was questioned whether the prevalence of HTLV infection among healthy blood donors may also be underestimated by current means of testing [1].
  • While the cells of four patients provided evidence of HTLV-I infection, molecular hybridization with HTLV-II-specific pol probes showed HTLV-II in the cells of another patient [2].
  • On the basis of homology to other retroviruses, these open reading frames were assigned to the gag, pro, and pol genes [3].
  • On the basis of PCR amplification in the pol and tax gene regions, both CD8+ subsets (89 to 91%) and CD4+ subsets (54 to 80%) from most infected subjects demonstrated HTLV-II provirus, irrespective of the viral genotype [4].
  • Using primers for the pol and tax regions of HTLV-II proviral DNA, amplified DNA fragments were demonstrated in 51.5% of the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in 11.8% of those with Graves' disease examined, but in only 1.9% of the disease controls and 1.0% of healthy individuals [5].

High impact information on pol

  • In addition, to collect data more expeditiously, a cohort of former injection drug users (IDUs) was tested by routine serologic methods, as well as by PCR/Southern blot analysis for Tax, pol, and gag proviral sequences and Western blot analysis for antibodies to the Tax gene product [1].
  • Furthermore, none of the 73 HTLVind specimens demonstrated presence of the HTLV genome when amplified with primers for the pol and tax/rex region [6].
  • As expected, HTLV-3(Pyl43) contains open reading frames corresponding to the gag, pol, env, tax, and rex genes [7].
  • Characterization of immunodominant epitopes of gag and pol gene-encoded proteins of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I [8].
  • These proteins were mapped on the viral genome by both internal deletions and 3'-end truncations at gag, pro, and pol, respectively [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of pol


Biological context of pol


Anatomical context of pol

  • Translation of gag, pro, and pol gene products of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 [3].
  • 1.5 pg of MT-2 and 5 pg of C3/44 Mo cell line DNAs were detected using nested-PCR and liquid hybridization in the pol system [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pol

  • A series of synthetic peptides derived from the corresponding regions of the gag, pol, and env proteins of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) were used in an enzyme immunoassay to map the immunodominant epitopes of HTLV [8].
  • Capitalizing on the increased sensitivity afforded by combining PCR amplification with detection by Southern blot hybridization, it became possible to demonstrate HTLV tax and/or pol proviral sequences in freshly isolated PBMC of most patients with mycosis fungoides [12].


  1. Reexamination of human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I/II) prevalence. Zucker-Franklin, D., Pancake, B.A., Marmor, M., Legler, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Human lymphotropic retroviruses associated with mycosis fungoides: evidence that human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) as well as HTLV-I may play a role in the disease. Zucker-Franklin, D., Hooper, W.C., Evatt, B.L. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Translation of gag, pro, and pol gene products of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2. Mador, N., Panet, A., Honigman, A. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo cellular tropism of human T-lymphotropic virus type II is not restricted to CD8+ cells. Lal, R.B., Owen, S.M., Rudolph, D.L., Dawson, C., Prince, H. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Presence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II-related genes in DNA of peripheral leukocytes from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Yokoi, K., Kawai, H., Akaike, M., Mine, H., Saito, S. J. Med. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Failure to detect evidence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I and type II in blood donors with isolated gag antibodies to HTLV-I/II. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D.L., Coligan, J.E., Brodine, S.K., Roberts, C.R. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3: complete nucleotide sequence and characterization of the human tax3 protein. Calattini, S., Chevalier, S.A., Duprez, R., Afonso, P., Froment, A., Gessain, A., Mahieux, R. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of immunodominant epitopes of gag and pol gene-encoded proteins of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D.L., Griffis, K.P., Kitamura, K., Honda, M., Coligan, J.E., Folks, T.M. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of a supersensitive polymerase chain reaction method for human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) and detection of HTLV-II proviral DNA from blood donors in Japan. Hamakado, T., Matsumoto, T., Koyanagi, Y., Hayashi, K., Fukada, K., Kouchiyama, T., Yoshida, T., Yamamoto, N. Virus Genes (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Endemic infection with human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type IIB in Argentinean and Paraguayan Indians: epidemiology and molecular characterization. Ferrer, J.F., Esteban, E., Dube, S., Basombrio, M.A., Segovia, A., Peralta-Ramos, M., Dube, D.K., Sayre, K., Aguayo, N., Hengst, J., Poiesz, B.J. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Typing human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) by nested polymerase chain reaction: application to clinical specimens. Vallejo, A., García-Sáiz, A. J. Virol. Methods (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I and II) in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Zucker-Franklin, D., Pancake, B.A. Seminars in dermatology. (1994) [Pubmed]
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