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Gene Review

pol  - 

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1

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Disease relevance of pol

  • Preliminary immunohistochemical studies carried out with various antisera directed against HTLV-I and the polymerase chain reaction utilizing a probe for a conserved region of the pol gene of HTLV-I were positive on only a portion of the specimens [1].
  • Two types of defective virus were identified: the first type (type 1) defective virus retained both LTRs and lacked internal sequences, which were mainly the 5' region of provirus, such as gag and pol [2].
  • HTLV-I OTU transcription is initiated at the same nucleotide site as the RNA isolated from the HTLV-I-infected cell line MT-2 but was not inhibited by the presence of alpha-amanitin at concentrations which inhibited the adenovirus major late pol II promoter (6 micrograms/ml) [3].
  • Thus, all of the dually positive samples had proviruses harboring gag, pol and pX priming sites [4].
  • We used a standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/Southern blot assay (sensitivity > 10(-5)) to detect human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral pX, pol, and env genes in the lesional skin of 42 American patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) [5].

High impact information on pol

  • To localize differences involved in the ability of the clones to cause infection, six chimeric HTLV-I clones were constructed by shuffling corresponding fragments containing the substitutions in the LTRs, the gag/pol region and the rex region between K30p and K34p [6].
  • In the 816 bp of HTLV-I pol gene sequence determined, no particular nucleotide mutation associated with zidovudine therapy could be identified in the treated subjects [7].
  • HTLV-I pol and tax viral sequences were detected in DNA from fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and liquid hybridization techniques [8].
  • HTLV-I pX and env but not pol DNA were detected in CNS tissue from 5 of 6 patients with HAM/TSP [9].
  • Tax protein of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is critical for viral replication and is a potent transcriptional activator of viral and cellular polymerase II (pol II) genes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of pol


Biological context of pol


Anatomical context of pol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pol

  • In contrast, 91.6% of thymoma-positive samples were positive for tax gene I/II and 75% positive for both genes, tax and pol type I. The sequence analysis of PCR product for tax and pol genes confirmed that these amplified products were HTLV-I, with minimal variations [16].
  • Although both patients lacked antibodies to HTLV, their blood and skin specimens proved to harbor tax and pol HTLV-I proviral sequences as shown by the polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis [20].


  1. Detection of human T-lymphotropic virus-like particles in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with mycosis fungoides. Zucker-Franklin, D., Coutavas, E.E., Rush, M.G., Zouzias, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Two types of defective human T-lymphotropic virus type I provirus in adult T-cell leukemia. Tamiya, S., Matsuoka, M., Etoh, K., Watanabe, T., Kamihira, S., Yamaguchi, K., Takatsuki, K. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcription of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I promoter by an alpha-amanitin-resistant polymerase. Piras, G., Kashanchi, F., Radonovich, M.F., Duvall, J.F., Brady, J.N. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Deleted HTLV-1 provirus in cord-blood samples of babies born to HTLV-1-carrier mothers. Kazi, A., Miyata, H., Kamahora, T., Kurokawa, K., Katamine, S., Hino, S. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence against a role for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I) in the pathogenesis of American cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Wood, G.S., Salvekar, A., Schaffer, J., Crooks, C.F., Henghold, W., Fivenson, D.P., Kim, Y.H., Smoller, B.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Infectivity of chimeric human T-cell leukemia virus type I molecular clones assessed by naked DNA inoculation. Zhao, T.M., Robinson, M.A., Bowers, F.S., Kindt, T.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Zidovudine treatment is not associated with HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase gene mutations in HTLV-I/HIV-1 co-infected patients. Gasmi, M., Fillon, S., Leriche, K., Neisson-Vernant, C., Desgranges, C. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Demonstration of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) from an HTLV-I seronegative south Indian patient with chronic, progressive spastic paraparesis. Nishimura, M., Mingioli, E., McFarlin, D.E., Jacobson, S. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Presence of HTLV-I proviral DNA in central nervous system of patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Kira, J., Itoyama, Y., Koyanagi, Y., Tateishi, J., Kishikawa, M., Akizuki, S., Kobayashi, I., Toki, N., Sueishi, K., Sato, H. Ann. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax protein transactivates RNA polymerase III promoter in vitro and in vivo. Piras, G., Dittmer, J., Radonovich, M.F., Brady, J.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Anatomical distribution of HTLV-I proviral sequence in an autopsy case of HTLV-I associated myelopathy: a polymerase chain reaction study. Sueyoshi, K., Goto, M., Johnosono, M., Sato, E., Shibata, D. Pathol. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3: complete nucleotide sequence and characterization of the human tax3 protein. Calattini, S., Chevalier, S.A., Duprez, R., Afonso, P., Froment, A., Gessain, A., Mahieux, R. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of sequences homologous to HTLV-I tax gene in the labial salivary glands of Japanese patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Sumida, T., Yonaha, F., Maeda, T., Kita, Y., Iwamoto, I., Koike, T., Yoshida, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation of a human T-lymphotropic virus type I strain from Australian aboriginals. Bastian, I., Gardner, J., Webb, D., Gardner, I. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of ribosomal frameshifting for expression of pol gene products of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. Nam, S.H., Copeland, T.D., Hatanaka, M., Oroszlan, S. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of HTLV-I tax-rex and pol gene sequences of thymus gland in a large group of patients with myasthenia gravis. Manca, N., Perandin, F., De Simone, N., Giannini, F., Bonifati, D., Angelini, C. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification demonstrates the absence of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I specific pol sequences in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Henni, T., Divine, M., Gaulard, P., Haioun, C., Duc Dodon, M., Gourdin, M.F., Desforges, L., Goossens, M., Reyes, F., Farcet, J.P. J. Clin. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Possible association of HTLV-I infection and dementia. Lycke, J., Svennerholm, B., Svenningsson, A., Horal, P., Nordqvist-Brandt, E., Andersen, O. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Absence of human T-lymphotrophic virus type I in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lipka, K., Tebbe, B., Finckh, U., Rolfs, A. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Cutaneous disease resembling mycosis fungoides in HIV-infected patients whose skin and blood cells also harbor proviral HTLV type I. Zucker-Franklin, D., Pancake, B.A., Friedman-Kien, A.E. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1994) [Pubmed]
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