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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Blood Donors

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Disease relevance of Blood Donors

  • Screening of selected male blood donors for p24 antigen of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The Transfusion Safety Study Group [1].
  • BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The Sydney Blood Bank Cohort consists of a blood donor and eight transfusion recipients who were infected before 1985 with a strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with a deletion in the region in which the nef gene and the long terminal repeat overlap [2].
  • In a survey carried out from 1985 through 1986, volunteer blood donors to The Greater New York Blood Program were tested for two surrogate markers for non-A, non-B hepatitis--elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen [3].
  • The low positive predictive values of some of these assays (71.8-91.7%), even in a high prevalence population, and the need for RIPA to test indeterminate sera, indicate that for routine screening of blood donors there is still room for improvement both in screening and confirmatory assays for HTLV-I/II [4].
  • Autoantibodies against a soluble liver antigen (SLA) were detected in 23 patients with HBsAg-negative chronic active hepatitis (CAH) but not in 502 patients with various other hepatic and non-hepatic disorders or 165 healthy blood donors [5].

Psychiatry related information on Blood Donors


High impact information on Blood Donors

  • Tolerance developed only if the blood donor and the recipient had one HLA haplotype or at least one HLA-B and one HLA-DR antigen in common (as was observed in 9 of these 10 patients) [11].
  • Prevalence of hemochromatosis among 11,065 presumably healthy blood donors [12].
  • Reducing the incidence of non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis by testing donor blood for alanine aminotransferase: economic considerations [13].
  • Evaluation by postal questionnaires, and pelvic radiography of 78 HL-A 27W-positive blood donors selected from a group of apparently healthy subjects revealed 14 who satisfied the criteria for definite ankylosing spondylitis [14].
  • We have now analysed two large samples of data from blood donors in England to test whether the distributions of the ABO and Rhesus blood group phenotypes are random with respect to socio-economic groups as determined by occupational classification [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Blood Donors


Biological context of Blood Donors


Anatomical context of Blood Donors

  • The expression of KIR and CD94:NKG2 receptors was determined for more than 100 natural killer (NK) cell clones obtained from two blood donors who differ in their HLA class I and KIR genes [26].
  • We have developed a monoclonal antibody (L21) that strongly agglutinates all erythrocytes except In(Lu), and we have identified eight In(Lu) individuals among 42,000 blood donors tested [27].
  • To this end, we extensively screened blood cells from healthy blood donors by a very sensitive seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for breakpoint junctions at JH1-5 on 14q32 and the major breakpoint region of BCL2 on 18q21 [28].
  • BCL-2/JH rearrangements in circulating B cells of healthy blood donors and patients with nonmalignant diseases [29].
  • By using serum or cerebrospinal fluid from 25 SMS patients, we assessed the effect of GAD autoantibodies (GAD-A) on GAD enzymatic activity in vitro; 83% of GAD-A-positive SMS sera reduced GABA production in crude rat cerebellar extracts, whereas GAD-A- sera from SMS patients or healthy blood donors did not alter the enzyme activity [30].

Associations of Blood Donors with chemical compounds


Gene context of Blood Donors

  • The presence of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding proteins (BP) was investigated in the sera of healthy volunteer blood donors and cancer patients [36].
  • Three patterns of bands of C4 were observed in EDTA plasma from a panel of unrelated blood donors and family members by using the technique of immunofixation electrophoresis [37].
  • Occurrence of the polymorphic GSTP1b variant in the GSTP1 gene resulted in a significantly lower GST enzyme activity (P < 0.05), and GSTP1b was found significantly more often in patients with Barrett's epithelium (70%; P < 0.001) and patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (76%; P = 0.005), as compared to healthy blood donors (41%) [38].
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients with scleroderma, compared with only 2 blood donors, had KIR phenotypes characterized by the presence of the activating KIR2DS2 and the absence of the corresponding inactivating KIR2DL2 (P = 0.005) [39].
  • The structure of the CYP21 gene was studied in 13 unrelated NC-CAH patients, three affected siblings, and 55 blood donors using polymerase chain reaction [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Blood Donors


  1. Screening of selected male blood donors for p24 antigen of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The Transfusion Safety Study Group. Busch, M.P., Taylor, P.E., Lenes, B.A., Kleinman, S.H., Stuart, M., Stevens, C.E., Tomasulo, P.A., Allain, J.P., Hollingsworth, C.G., Mosley, J.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunologic and virologic status after 14 to 18 years of infection with an attenuated strain of HIV-1. A report from the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort. Learmont, J.C., Geczy, A.F., Mills, J., Ashton, L.J., Raynes-Greenow, C.H., Garsia, R.J., Dyer, W.B., McIntyre, L., Oelrichs, R.B., Rhodes, D.I., Deacon, N.J., Sullivan, J.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. A preliminary study in volunteer blood donors. Stevens, C.E., Taylor, P.E., Pindyck, J., Choo, Q.L., Bradley, D.W., Kuo, G., Houghton, M. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassays for antibody to human T-lymphotropic viruses type I/II. Kline, R.L., Brothers, T., Halsey, N., Boulos, R., Lairmore, M.D., Quinn, T.C. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterisation of a new subgroup of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis by autoantibodies against a soluble liver antigen. Manns, M., Gerken, G., Kyriatsoulis, A., Staritz, M., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.H. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunological and PCR analyses for Borna disease virus in psychiatric patients and blood donors in Japan. Fukuda, K., Takahashi, K., Iwata, Y., Mori, N., Gonda, K., Ogawa, T., Osonoe, K., Sato, M., Ogata, S., Horimoto, T., Sawada, T., Tashiro, M., Yamaguchi, K., Niwa, S., Shigeta, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. ABO blood groups in obsessional illness--state and trait. McKeon, J.P., McColl, D. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Lymphocyte stimulation in vitro by orosomucoid glycoprotein. Singh, V.K., Fudenberg, H.H. Immunol. Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Cortisol and heart rate changes in first- and fourth-time donors. Bellitti, P., Valeriano, R., Gasperi, M., Sodini, L., Barletta, D. Vox Sang. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Drug injection rates and needle-exchange use in New York City, 1991-1996. Marmor, M., Shore, R.E., Titus, S., Chen, X., Des Jarlais, D.C. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Pretransplantation blood transfusion revisited. van Twuyver, E., Mooijaart, R.J., ten Berge, I.J., van der Horst, A.R., Wilmink, J.M., Kast, W.M., Melief, C.J., de Waal, L.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Prevalence of hemochromatosis among 11,065 presumably healthy blood donors. Edwards, C.Q., Griffen, L.M., Goldgar, D., Drummond, C., Skolnick, M.H., Kushner, J.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Reducing the incidence of non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis by testing donor blood for alanine aminotransferase: economic considerations. Hornbrook, M.C., Dodd, R.Y., Jacobs, P., Friedman, L.I., Sherman, K.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Striking prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis in "healthy" w27 positive males and females. Calin, A., Fries, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. ABO genes are differentially distributed in socio-economic groups in England. Beardmore, J.A., Karimi-Booshehri, F. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Gm allotypes in myasthenia gravis. Nakao, Y., Matsumoto, H., Miyazaki, T., Nishitani, H., Ota, K., Fujita, T., Tsuji, K. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Acute thrombocytopenia after treatment with tirofiban or eptifibatide is associated with antibodies specific for ligand-occupied GPIIb/IIIa. Bougie, D.W., Wilker, P.R., Wuitschick, E.D., Curtis, B.R., Malik, M., Levine, S., Lind, R.N., Pereira, J., Aster, R.H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Factors associated with serum alanine transaminase activity in healthy subjects: consequences for the definition of normal values, for selection of blood donors, and for patients with chronic hepatitis C. MULTIVIRC Group. Piton, A., Poynard, T., Imbert-Bismut, F., Khalil, L., Delattre, J., Pelissier, E., Sansonetti, N., Opolon, P. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Percutaneous injuries among health care workers. The real value of human immunodeficiency virus testing of 'donor' blood. Allen, U.D., Guerriere, M., Read, S.E., Detsky, A.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of IgA-class reticulin and endomysium antibodies in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis. Hällström, O. Gut (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Detection, semiquantitation, and genetic variation in hepatitis C virus sequences amplified from the plasma of blood donors with elevated alanine aminotransferase. Ulrich, P.P., Romeo, J.M., Lane, P.K., Kelly, I., Daniel, L.J., Vyas, G.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. HIV-1-resistance phenotype conferred by combination of two separate inherited mutations of CCR5 gene. Quillent, C., Oberlin, E., Braun, J., Rousset, D., Gonzalez-Canali, G., Métais, P., Montagnier, L., Virelizier, J.L., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Beretta, A. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele as a genetic risk factor for left ventricular failure in homozygous beta-thalassemia. Economou-Petersen, E., Aessopos, A., Kladi, A., Flevari, P., Karabatsos, F., Fragodimitri, C., Nicolaidis, P., Vrettou, H., Vassilopoulos, D., Karagiorga-Lagana, M., Kremastinos, D.T., Petersen, M.B. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Natural history of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus infection through the follow-up of GBV-C/hepatitis G virus-infected blood donors and recipients studied by RNA polymerase chain reaction and anti-E2 serology. Lefrère, J.J., Loiseau, P., Maury, J., Lasserre, J., Mariotti, M., Ravera, N., Lerable, J., Lefèvre, G., Morand-Joubert, L., Girot, R. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of erythropoietin on platelet reactivity and thrombopoiesis in humans. Stohlawetz, P.J., Dzirlo, L., Hergovich, N., Lackner, E., Mensik, C., Eichler, H.G., Kabrna, E., Geissler, K., Jilma, B. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Functionally and structurally distinct NK cell receptor repertoires in the peripheral blood of two human donors. Valiante, N.M., Uhrberg, M., Shilling, H.G., Lienert-Weidenbach, K., Arnett, K.L., D'Andrea, A., Phillips, J.H., Lanier, L.L., Parham, P. Immunity (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. New abnormalities in the morphology, cell surface receptors, and electrolyte metabolism of In(Lu) erythrocytes. Udden, M.M., Umeda, M., Hirano, Y., Marcus, D.M. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Lymphoma-associated translocation t(14;18) in blood B cells of normal individuals. Limpens, J., Stad, R., Vos, C., de Vlaam, C., de Jong, D., van Ommen, G.J., Schuuring, E., Kluin, P.M. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. BCL-2/JH rearrangements in circulating B cells of healthy blood donors and patients with nonmalignant diseases. Dölken, G., Illerhaus, G., Hirt, C., Mertelsmann, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis by glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in stiff-man syndrome. Dinkel, K., Meinck, H.M., Jury, K.M., Karges, W., Richter, W. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Serum neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin in anti-HIV positive blood donors. Lambin, P., Desjobert, H., Debbia, M., Fine, J.M., Muller, J.Y. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Susceptibility of chronic symptomless HBsAg carriers to ethanol-induced hepatic damage. Villa, E., Rubbiani, L., Barchi, T., Ferretti, I., Grisendi, A., De Palma, M., Bellentani, S., Manenti, F. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  33. Blood donor screening by Wellcome anti-HIV kits. Taylor, H.L., Moulsdale, H.J., Mortimer, P.P. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Antibodies to cardiolipin in young survivors of myocardial infarction: an association with recurrent cardiovascular events. Hamsten, A., Norberg, R., Björkholm, M., de Faire, U., Holm, G. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Letter: Status of lithium patients as blood-donors. Gupta, R.K., Montgomery, S. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. High levels of circulating soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor in hairy cell leukemia and type B chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Digel, W., Porzsolt, F., Schmid, M., Herrmann, F., Lesslauer, W., Brockhaus, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Two HLA-linked loci controlling the fourth component of human complement. O'Neill, G.J., Yang, S.Y., Dupont, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  38. Polymorphic expression of the glutathione S-transferase P1 gene and its susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. van Lieshout, E.M., Roelofs, H.M., Dekker, S., Mulder, C.J., Wobbes, T., Jansen, J.B., Peters, W.H. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Association of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors with scleroderma. Momot, T., Koch, S., Hunzelmann, N., Krieg, T., Ulbricht, K., Schmidt, R.E., Witte, T. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Pro-453 to Ser mutation in CYP21 is associated with nonclassic steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Owerbach, D., Sherman, L., Ballard, A.L., Azziz, R. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  41. Prevalence of serum and salivary antibodies to HTLV-1 in Sjögren's syndrome. Terada, K., Katamine, S., Eguchi, K., Moriuchi, R., Kita, M., Shimada, H., Yamashita, I., Iwata, K., Tsuji, Y., Nagataki, S. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. An N-glucosylated peptide detecting disease-specific autoantibodies, biomarkers of multiple sclerosis. Lolli, F., Mulinacci, B., Carotenuto, A., Bonetti, B., Sabatino, G., Mazzanti, B., D'Ursi, A.M., Novellino, E., Pazzagli, M., Lovato, L., Alcaro, M.C., Peroni, E., Pozo-Carrero, M.C., Nuti, F., Battistini, L., Borsellino, G., Chelli, M., Rovero, P., Papini, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  43. Hepatitis C virus infection from blood and blood products. van der Poel, C.L. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Avoidance of allogeneic blood transfusions by treatment with epoetin beta (recombinant human erythropoietin) in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Sowade, O., Warnke, H., Scigalla, P., Sowade, B., Franke, W., Messinger, D., Gross, J. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  45. Selective antibody reactivity with peptides from human endogenous retroviruses and nonviral poly(amino acids) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bengtsson, A., Blomberg, J., Nived, O., Pipkorn, R., Toth, L., Sturfelt, G. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
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