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MeSH Review

Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

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Disease relevance of Human T-lymphotropic virus 2


High impact information on Human T-lymphotropic virus 2


Chemical compound and disease context of Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

  • HTLV-II proviral levels in the peripheral blood remained relatively constant, despite therapy with zidovudine [10].
  • Our results indicate that p24rex of HTLV-II is not initiated at an internal AUG and that the internal methionine codons are not crucial to the function of the rex gene and, ultimately, the transforming properties of the virus [11].
  • To determine whether HTLV-II infection is associated with impaired humoral immune responses, we immunized a cohort of HTLV-II-infected subjects and matched uninfected control subjects with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid vaccines [12].
  • To identify risk factors for human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection in intravenous drug users (IVDUs), participants in a longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a New York methadone maintenance program were studied [13].
  • These results suggest that the spontaneous proliferation in HTLV-II asymptomatic carriers is due to expansion of CD8 cells expressing integrin receptors which may serve as costimulatory molecules for their activation [14].

Biological context of Human T-lymphotropic virus 2


Anatomical context of Human T-lymphotropic virus 2


Gene context of Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

  • The MHC class II transcriptional activator (CIITA) inhibits HTLV-2 viral replication by blocking the function of the viral transactivator Tax-2 [16].
  • Further, there was a direct correlation between the spontaneous proliferation of lymphocytes from patients infected with HTLV-II and expression of CD80, which could be blocked by simultaneous addition of anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 [25].
  • Our findings indicate that both HTLV-2 and HIV-1 infection prime T lymphocytes for STAT1 activation, but they also highlight an interference exerted by HTLV-2 on HIV-1-induced STAT1 activation [26].
  • Thus, the shift in the suppressor/cytotoxic to helper/inducer 'memory' CD4+ may be associated with immunoregulatory abnormalities often found in persons infected with HTLV-I or HTLV-II [27].
  • Northern blot analysis of T-cell lines generated from individuals infected with HTLV-I (MT-2, HuT-102, FS, EG, SP) and HTLV-II (Mo-T, H2A, H2E) demonstrated a marked increase in constitutive expression of LIF and IL-6 transcripts, as compared with uninfected cell lines (HuT-78, Jurkat) [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Human T-lymphotropic virus 2

  • RT-PCR demonstrated active expression of the HTLV-II regulatory protein Tax in the infected CD8+ T lymphocyte population, and it was further shown that Tax transactivates the promoters of MIP-1beta and RANTES [29].
  • A series of synthetic peptides derived from the envelope glycoprotein of human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) was used in an enzyme immunoassay to determine the immunodominant epitopes of envelope glycoprotein [30].
  • This antibody (clone 6C2) was directed to an epitope within domain 4 (amino acids 210 to 306) of the retroviral env gene and reacted with envelope proteins in both HTLV-I and HTLV-II, as determined by immunoprecipitation, solid-phase binding, and immunoblotting [31].
  • Sequence analysis of an amplified fragment of 172 nucleotides within the gp21 of the env region (6469-6640) of four HTLV-II infected individuals revealed a new HTLV-II molecular variant of the subtype b diverging from the prototypes NRA and G12 by seven (4.1%) and five (2.9%) bases substitutions, respectively [32].
  • Seroprevalences of 2.50% (1 of 40) and 1.43% (1 of 70) for HTLV-1 were observed among Wayku and San Francisco communities in the Amazon region of Peru, and seroprevalences of 4.54% (1 of 22) and 2.38% (1 of 42) for HTLV-2 were observed among Boca Colorada and Galilea communities [33].


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  2. Chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with HTLV-II infection. Hjelle, B., Appenzeller, O., Mills, R., Alexander, S., Torrez-Martinez, N., Jahnke, R., Ross, G. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. HTLV-II down-regulates HIV-1 replication in IL-2-stimulated primary PBMC of coinfected individuals through expression of MIP-1alpha. Casoli, C., Vicenzi, E., Cimarelli, A., Magnani, G., Ciancianaini, P., Cattaneo, E., Dall'Aglio, P., Poli, G., Bertazzoni, U. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Leukemic cells from a chronic T-lymphocytic leukemia patient proliferated in response to both interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 without prior stimulation and produced interleukin-2 mRNA with stimulation. Umadome, H., Uchiyama, T., Onishi, R., Hori, T., Uchino, H., Nesumi, N. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1- and type 2-infected cells by a caspase-3-dependent mechanism involving Bcl-2 cleavage. Mahieux, R., Pise-Masison, C., Gessain, A., Brady, J.N., Olivier, R., Perret, E., Misteli, T., Nicot, C. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Trans-activator gene of HTLV-II induces IL-2 receptor and IL-2 cellular gene expression. Greene, W.C., Leonard, W.J., Wano, Y., Svetlik, P.B., Peffer, N.J., Sodroski, J.G., Rosen, C.A., Goh, W.C., Haseltine, W.A. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. HTLV x-gene product: requirement for the env methionine initiation codon. Wachsman, W., Golde, D.W., Temple, P.A., Orr, E.C., Clark, S.C., Chen, I.S. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Type-specific antigens for serological discrimination of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Chen, Y.M., Lee, T.H., Wiktor, S.Z., Shaw, G.M., Murphy, E.L., Blattner, W.A., Essex, M. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of scatter factor in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Naidu, Y.M., Rosen, E.M., Zitnick, R., Goldberg, I., Park, M., Naujokas, M., Polverini, P.J., Nickoloff, B.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Progressive spastic myelopathy in a patient co-infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-II: autoantibodies to the human homologue of rig in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Rosenblatt, J.D., Tomkins, P., Rosenthal, M., Kacena, A., Chan, G., Valderama, R., Harrington, W., Saxton, E., Diagne, A., Zhao, J.Q. AIDS (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The internal methionine codons of human T-cell leukemia virus type II rex gene are not required for p24rex production or virus replication and transformation. Green, P.L., Xie, Y.M., Chen, I.S. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Human T lymphotropic virus type II infection and humoral responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid vaccines. Jarvis, G.A., Janoff, E.N., Cheng, H., Devita, D., Fasching, C., McCulloch, C.E., Murphy, E.L. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection in a cohort of New York intravenous drug users: an old infection? Khabbaz, R.F., Hartel, D., Lairmore, M., Horsburgh, C.R., Schoenbaum, E.E., Roberts, B., Hartley, T.M., Friedland, G. J. Infect. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Phenotypic expression of integrin membrane receptors on spontaneously proliferating CD8 cells in human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II)-infected individuals. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D.L., Rowe, T., Folks, T.M. J. Clin. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 from Guaymi Indians in Panama. Lairmore, M.D., Jacobson, S., Gracia, F., De, B.K., Castillo, L., Larreategui, M., Roberts, B.D., Levine, P.H., Blattner, W.A., Kaplan, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. The MHC class II transcriptional activator (CIITA) inhibits HTLV-2 viral replication by blocking the function of the viral transactivator Tax-2. Casoli, C., De Lerma Barbaro, A., Pilotti, E., Bertazzoni, U., Tosi, G., Accolla, R.S. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. African origin of human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) supported by a potential new HTLV-2d subtype in Congolese Bambuti Efe Pygmies. Vandamme, A.M., Salemi, M., Van Brussel, M., Liu, H.F., Van Laethem, K., Van Ranst, M., Michels, L., Desmyter, J., Goubau, P. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of cell cycle arrest by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax in hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) cells: modulation of p21cip1/waf1 and p27kip1 expression. Tripp, A., Banerjee, P., Sieburg, M., Planelles, V., Li, F., Feuer, G. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. A novel monoclonal antibody specifically reactive with human T-lymphotropic virus type-II (HTLV-II) envelope protein. Ohara, N., Hayashi, K., Takahashi, K., Miyamoto, K., Akagi, T. Int. J. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Rat lymphoid cell lines producing human T cell leukemia virus. II. Constitutive expression of rat interleukin 2 receptor. Yodoi, J., Okada, M., Tagaya, Y., Teshigawara, K., Fukui, K., Ishida, N., Ikuta, K., Maeda, M., Honjo, T., Osawa, H. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of type-specific linear epitopes in the glycoproteins gp46 and gp21 of human T-cell leukemia viruses type I and type II using synthetic peptides. Horal, P., Hall, W.W., Svennerholm, B., Lycke, J., Jeansson, S., Rymo, L., Kaplan, M.H., Vahlne, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Transactivation of the interleukin-1alpha promoter by human T-cell leukemia virus type I and type II Tax proteins. Mori, N., Prager, D. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of an 80-kilodalton membrane glycoprotein important for human T-cell leukemia virus type I and type II syncytium formation and infection. Agadjanyan, M.G., Ugen, K.E., Wang, B., Williams, W.V., Weiner, D.B. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunoelectron microscopic study of HTLV-II-producing cells with an anti-envelope gp46 monoclonal antibody. Ohara, N., Hayashi, K., Miyamoto, K., Takahashi, K., Ohtsuki, Y., Akagi, T. Arch. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Costimulatory effects of T cell proliferation during infection with human T lymphotropic virus types I and II are mediated through CD80 and CD86 ligands. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D.L., Dezzutti, C.S., Linsley, P.S., Prince, H.E. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Retroviral interference on STAT activation in individuals coinfected with human T cell leukemia virus type 2 and HIV-1. Bovolenta, C., Pilotti, E., Mauri, M., Panzeri, B., Sassi, M., Dall'Aglio, P., Bertazzoni, U., Poli, G., Casoli, C. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Concomitant augmentation of CD4+ CD29+ helper inducer and diminution of CD4+ CD45RA+ suppressor inducer subset in patients infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus types I or II. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D.L., Schmid, D.S., Lairmore, M.D. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Infection with human T-lymphotropic viruses leads to constitutive expression of leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D., Buckner, C., Pardi, D., Hooper, W.C. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Spontaneous production of C-C chemokines by individuals infected with human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) alone and HTLV-II/HIV-1 coinfected individuals. Lewis, M.J., Gautier, V.W., Wang, X.P., Kaplan, M.H., Hall, W.W. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of immunodominant epitopes in envelope glycoprotein of human T lymphotropic virus type II. Lal, R.B., Rudolph, D.L., Kaplan, J.E., Hjelle, B., Levine, P.H., Coligan, J.E., Viscidi, R.P. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Monoclonal antibodies and chemiluminescence immunoassay for detection of the surface protein of human T-cell lymphotropic virus. Papsidero, L.D., Dittmer, R.P., Vaickus, L., Poiesz, B.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence in Gabon for an intrafamilial clustering with mother-to-child and sexual transmission of a new molecular variant of human T-lymphotropic virus type-II subtype B. Tuppin, P., Gessain, A., Kazanji, M., Mahieux, R., Cosnefroy, J.Y., Tekaia, F., Georges-Courbot, M.C., Georges, A., de Thé, G. J. Med. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Prevalence of antibody to human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 among aboriginal groups inhabiting northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru. Medeot, S., Nates, S., Recalde, A., Gallego, S., Maturano, E., Giordano, M., Serra, H., Reategui, J., Cabezas, C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
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