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Gene Review

Lbx1  -  ladybird homeobox homolog 1 (Drosophila)

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Ladybird homeobox protein homolog 1, Lbx1h, Transcription factor LBX1
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Disease relevance of Lbx1


High impact information on Lbx1

  • Early specification of limb muscle precursor cells by the homeobox gene Lbx1h [2].
  • Inactivation of Lbx1h, which is specifically expressed in migrating muscle precursor cells, led to a lack of extensor muscles in forelimbs and an absence of muscles in hindlimbs [2].
  • These genetic studies suggest that Lbx1 expression defines a basal GABAergic differentiation state, and Tlx3 acts to antagonize Lbx1 to promote glutamatergic differentiation [3].
  • Furthermore, overexpression of Lbx1 in the chick spinal cord is sufficient to induce GABAergic differentiation [3].
  • Lbx1 specifies somatosensory association interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord [4].

Biological context of Lbx1


Anatomical context of Lbx1

  • Mice lacking Lbx1 exhibit an extensive loss of limb muscles, although some forelimb and hindlimb muscles are still present [5].
  • In stage 4 hindlimb bud (11.5 dpc), the dorsal and ventral muscle precursor populations expressed Lbx1 [6].
  • The lateral expression of Lbx1 in somitic mesoderm then occurred regionally along the anterior-posterior body axis [6].
  • These results suggest that mouse Lbx1 might be involved in the commitment or determination of a muscle cell subpopulation during hypaxial musculature development [6].
  • Later, at 10 dpc (stage 1 of limb bud development), Lbx1-positive migrating cells originated in the lateral dermomyotomal lips at occipital, forelimb, and hindlimb levels [6].

Other interactions of Lbx1

  • Lbx1 and Pax3 are co-expressed in all migrating hypaxial muscle precursors, raising the possibility that Lbx1 regulates their migration [5].
  • We conclude that parallel but independent cues converge on the migratory hypaxial precursors in the dermomyotomal lip after they are laid down: a signal given by SF/HGF that controls the emigration of the precursors, and an as yet unidentified signal that controls Lbx1 [9].
  • In stage 8 forelimb buds (12.5 dpc), Lbx1 expression was reduced in the proximal muscle masses, where the high expression of myogenin accompanying muscle differentiation was detected [6].
  • In the Lbx1 mutants Satb2 expression is greatly reduced [10].
  • The homeobox containing gene Lbx1 is required for correct dorsal-ventral patterning of the neural tube [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lbx1

  • We used gene targeting to analyse the function of Lbx1 in the mouse [11].
  • Immunohistochemistry on appendicular sections after E10.5 demonstrated that Pitx2 neatly marked the areas of muscle anlagen, that Pax3, Lbx1, and the muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) stained only subsets of Pitx2(+) cells within these areas, and that virtually all Pitx2(+) cells in these areas express at least one of these known myogenic markers [12].


  1. The homeobox gene Lbx1 specifies a subpopulation of cardiac neural crest necessary for normal heart development. Schäfer, K., Neuhaus, P., Kruse, J., Braun, T. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Early specification of limb muscle precursor cells by the homeobox gene Lbx1h. Schäfer, K., Braun, T. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Lbx1 and Tlx3 are opposing switches in determining GABAergic versus glutamatergic transmitter phenotypes. Cheng, L., Samad, O.A., Xu, Y., Mizuguchi, R., Luo, P., Shirasawa, S., Goulding, M., Ma, Q. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Lbx1 specifies somatosensory association interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Gross, M.K., Dottori, M., Goulding, M. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Lbx1 is required for muscle precursor migration along a lateral pathway into the limb. Gross, M.K., Moran-Rivard, L., Velasquez, T., Nakatsu, M.N., Jagla, K., Goulding, M. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of lbx1 involved in the hypaxial musculature formation of the mouse embryo. Uchiyama, K., Ishikawa, A., Hanaoka, K. J. Exp. Zool. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The homeobox containing gene Lbx1 is required for correct dorsal-ventral patterning of the neural tube. Krüger, M., Schäfer, K., Braun, T. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Mouse Lbx1 and human LBX1 define a novel mammalian homeobox gene family related to the Drosophila lady bird genes. Jagla, K., Dollé, P., Mattei, M.G., Jagla, T., Schuhbaur, B., Dretzen, G., Bellard, F., Bellard, M. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of SF/HGF and c-Met in the development of skeletal muscle. Dietrich, S., Abou-Rebyeh, F., Brohmann, H., Bladt, F., Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, E., Yamaai, T., Lumsden, A., Brand-Saberi, B., Birchmeier, C. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Novel transcription factor Satb2 interacts with matrix attachment region DNA elements in a tissue-specific manner and demonstrates cell-type-dependent expression in the developing mouse CNS. Britanova, O., Akopov, S., Lukyanov, S., Gruss, P., Tarabykin, V. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of Lbx1 in migration of muscle precursor cells. Brohmann, H., Jagla, K., Birchmeier, C. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 during muscle development. Shih, H.P., Gross, M.K., Kioussi, C. Gene Expr. Patterns (2007) [Pubmed]
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