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Gene Review

Acmsd  -  aminocarboxymuconate semialdehyde...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, Picolinate carboxylase
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Disease relevance of Acmsd

  • The rat ACMSD ORF was inserted into a mammalian expression vector, before transfection into human hepatoma HepG2 cells [1].

High impact information on Acmsd

  • ACMSD cDNAs isolated from liver and kidney were shown to be identical, consisting of a 1008 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 336 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 38091 Da [1].
  • Expression of rat hepatic 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase is affected by a high protein diet and by streptozotocin-induced diabetes [2].
  • In the tryptophan-niacin conversion, 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semiardehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD; formerly termed picolinic carboxylase) is an important enzyme regulating the generation of quinolinate [2].
  • Hepatic alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-e-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) [EC4.1.1.45] plays a key role in regulating NAD biosynthesis from tryptophan [3].
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the ACMSD mRNA expression after pyrazinamide or peroxisome proliferators ingestion [3].

Biological context of Acmsd

  • Therefore, in this study, we examined whether dietary linoleic acid altered ACMSD gene expression and its protein level [4].
  • Since liver ACMSD activity in adrenalectomized rats was also increased by feeding a high-protein diet, adrenocortical hormone was thought to be unnecessary for such enzyme induction [5].
  • In tryptophan-niacin metabolism, alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) [EC] is known to play an important role by catalyzing the decarboxylation of alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde, a metabolite of tryptophan which cyclizes spontaneously to form quinolinate [5].

Associations of Acmsd with chemical compounds

  • However, pyrazinamide does not affect the transcription level of hepatic ACMSD [3].
  • Shifting from the control diet to a clofibrate diet suppressed ACMSD mRNA strongly at day 1 and continued through day 4 [3].
  • In rats fed with several kinds of peroxisome-proliferator-containing diets such as phthalate ester, bezafibrate, Wy-14,643, 2-(-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid, or dehydroisoandrosterone for 8 days, hepatic ACMSD mRNA was drastically decreased by all the peroxisome proliferators [3].
  • The results indicated that the induction of hepatic ACMSD activity by diabetes was not due to removal of the suppressive effect of the linoleic acid on the enzyme [6].
  • Moreover, this study provides the information that a high polyunsaturated fatty acid diet affects the production of quinolinic acid in serum by suppressing the ACMSD activity [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acmsd


  1. Purification and molecular cloning of rat 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase. Tanabe, A., Egashira, Y., Fukuoka, S., Shibata, K., Sanada, H. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of rat hepatic 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase is affected by a high protein diet and by streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Tanabe, A., Egashira, Y., Fukuoka, S., Shibata, K., Sanada, H. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential Effects of Pyrazinamide and Clofibrate on Gene Expression of Rat Hepatic a-Amino-b-Carboxymuconate-e-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase, a Key Enzyme of the Tryptophan-NAD Pathway. Egashira, Y., Sato, M., Sato, M., Sugawara, R., Tanabe, A., Shin, M., Sanada, H. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift f??r Vitamin- und Ern??hrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Dietary linoleic acid suppresses gene expression of rat liver alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) and increases quinolinic acid in serum. Egashira, Y., Sato, M., Tanabe, A., Saito, K., Fujigaki, S., Sanada, H. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of high-protein diet on liver alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase in rats. Sanada, H., Miyazaki, M. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of dietary linoleic acid on the tryptophan-niacin metabolism in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Egashira, Y., Nakazawa, A., Ohta, T., Shibata, K., Sanada, H. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential effects of dietary fatty acids on rat liver alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase activity and gene expression. Egashira, Y., Murotani, G., Tanabe, A., Saito, K., Uehara, K., Morise, A., Sato, M., Sanada, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Change of tryptophan-niacin metabolism in D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rat. Egashira, Y., Komine, T., Ohta, T., Shibata, K., Sanada, H. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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