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Gene Review

Pygm  -  phosphorylase, glycogen, muscle

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Glycogen phosphorylase, muscle form, Myophosphorylase
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Disease relevance of Pygm


High impact information on Pygm


Chemical compound and disease context of Pygm


Biological context of Pygm

  • 5. Treatment of the sciatic nerve with 0.40% (w/v) VIN for 1 hr reduced axonal transport and decreased MGP transcript levels by 50% within 7 days, but also reduced sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities and depressed TA contractile function [7].
  • These data suggest that muscle activity has an important influence on MGP gene expression [7].
  • 3. In Wistar rat liver and skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase was activated soon after death and the activity of phosphorylase a remained well above the zero-time level at all later time points, even when the rate of glycogenolysis had slowed significantly [8].

Anatomical context of Pygm

  • Daily injection of 2 microg TTX into the sciatic nerve for 7 days eliminated muscle contractile activity and reduced MGP transcript levels by 60% [7].
  • The enzyme myophosphorylase is found to be decreased progressively on the basis of histochemical stain in the myocardium of chronically ethanol intoxicated rats [2].

Associations of Pygm with chemical compounds

  • It is suggested that the particular susceptibility of fast glycolytic fibres to atrophy as a result of steroid treatment may be linked to: 1 the relatively severe reduction of myophosphorylase activity in these fibres and 2 their comparative inability to utilize alternative energy sources, especially substrates derived from free fatty acids [9].
  • Age-associated tyrosine nitration of rat skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b: characterization by HPLC-nanoelectrospray-Tandem mass spectrometry [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pygm


  1. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of the muscle glycogen phosphorylase gene into hepatocytes confers altered regulation of glycogen metabolism. Gómez-Foix, A.M., Coats, W.S., Baqué, S., Alam, T., Gerard, R.D., Newgard, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Absence of myophosphorylase in ethanol induced cardiomyopathy. Baruah, J.K., Kinder, D. Experimental pathology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Tissue B-6 vitamer concentrations in rats fed excess vitamin B-6. Schaeffer, M.C., Gretz, D., Mahuren, J.D., Coburn, S.P. J. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of the rat muscle glycogen phosphorylase-encoding gene during muscle cell development. Froman, B.E., Herrick, K.R., Gorin, F.A. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Amylin activates glycogen phosphorylase in the isolated soleus muscle of the rat. Young, A.A., Mott, D.M., Stone, K., Cooper, G.J. FEBS Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Age-associated tyrosine nitration of rat skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b: characterization by HPLC-nanoelectrospray-Tandem mass spectrometry. Sharov, V.S., Galeva, N.A., Kanski, J., Williams, T.D., Schöneich, C. Exp. Gerontol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Nerve-dependent factors regulating transcript levels of glycogen phosphorylase in skeletal muscle. Matthews, C.C., Carlsen, R.C., Froman, B., Tait, R., Gorin, F. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Post mortem glycogenolysis is a combination of phosphorolysis and hydrolysis. Calder, P.C., Geddes, R. Int. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of dexamethasone on fibre subtypes in rat muscle. Livingstone, I., Johnson, M.A., Mastaglia, F.L. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative sequence analysis of rat, rabbit, and human muscle glycogen phosphorylase cDNAs. Hwang, P.K., See, Y.P., Vincentini, A.M., Powers, M.A., Fletterick, R.J., Crerar, M.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunocytochemical localization of glycogen phosphorylase kinase in rat brain sections and in glial and neuronal primary cultures. Psarra, A.M., Pfeiffer, B., Giannakopoulou, M., Sotiroudis, T.G., Stylianopoulou, F., Hamprecht, B. J. Neurocytol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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